Social Studies

"ParentVision" Newsletter...

An NHD Classroom Connection: National History Day Regional Coordinator Visits Alice ISD Students and Teachers

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NHD Classrooms Come Alive!

Students and teachers were treated to a one on one interactive lesson and training session with Ms. Lois Jaimes, the NHD Regional Coordinator from Texas A&M University Kingsville. Students from Alice High School and Memorial participated in this event. Ms. Jaimes visited Alice High School on November 4, 2015 and Memorial on November 9, 2015.


Ms. Jaimes helped transform the classroom experience with interactive NHD lessons and demonstrations. She discussed the theme and asked students what their topic of research would be. She helped some students narrow their topic of research, and offered suggestions on where and how to obtain primary and secondary resources. Students were also shown sample projects of past national winners. Students were able to interact with her during the question and answer session, as well as with the one on one lesson encounters.


This year’s theme is Exploration, Encounter, Exchange in History. The intentional selection of the theme for NHD is to provide an opportunity for students to push past the antiquated view of history as mere facts and dates and drill down into historical content to develop perspective and understanding. Every year National History Day frames students’ research within a historical theme. The theme is chosen for the broad application to world, national or state history and its relevance to ancient history or to the more recent past. The NHD theme provides a focused way to increase students’ historical understanding by developing a lens to read history, an organizational structure that helps students place information in the correct context and finally, the ability to see connections over time.


National History Day (Day) motivates students to discover history by:

  • Cultivating interest: students research a topic of their choice
  • Developing research skills: students act as historians discovering how to uncover primary sources, build historical context and form historical interpretations
  • Becoming experts on their research topic: presenting their research to teachers, students, and historians
  • Achieving success: The shy student gains confidence when speaking about a topic he/she has researched, The apathetic student gains passion by choosing a topic of personal interest, and The high achieving student increases his/her ability to articulate learning through presentation.

Google+ Hangouts & Webinars Support Sessions:


Students, parents, teachers, and community are invited to the NHD Google+ Hangouts & Webinars. See the 2015 Schedule below.


FALL 2015 SCHEDULE


Exploring Varied Stories of Immigration Using Primary Sources from the Library of Congress

Audience: Teachers, Coordinators and Judges
National History Day, Library of Congress
Thursday, November 19, 2015, 7pm ET
Explore techniques to help students successfully analyze and construct knowledge from multiple primary sources in various formats, often presenting contrasting or contradictory perspectives. Library experts will model strategies using primary sources.
Click Here to Register


Introducing the 2016 Exploration, Encounter, Exchange in History Theme

Audience: NHD Students, Teachers, Coordinators, Parents, and Judges
National History Day, National Archives and Records Administration, White House Historical Association
Click below to re-watch the webinar.
YouTube | SchoolTube
Webinar Extras


HELP! I’m a New NHD Teacher – What did I Get Myself Into?

Audience: NEW (and newer) NHD Teachers and Coordinators
National History Day, Behring Teacher Ambassadors
Click below to re-watch the webinar.
YouTube | SchoolTube
PowerPoint Slides


Social Media for NHD – An Interactive How To Session

Audience: NHD Teachers and Coordinators
National History Day
YouTube | SchoolTube


Teaching with Historical Newspapers from Chronicling America

Audience: NHD Students, Teachers, Coordinators, Parents and Judges
National History Day, Library of Congress
Click below to re-watch the webinar.
Chronicling America provides access to select newspaper pages from 1836-1922. Join Library of Congress experts to explore tools and strategies to make the most of this unique database in generating and researching topics for NHD projects.
YouTube | SchoolTube
Webinar Slides


To Interview or Not to Interview?

Audience: NHD Students, Teachers, Coordinators, Parents and Judges
National History Day, The American Historical Association, The National WWII Museum
Click below to re-watch the webinar.
YouTube | SchoolTube
Webinar Extras


*All webinars and hangouts will be recorded and posted on http://www.nhd.org/classroom-connection/google-hangouts-and-webinars/


“ASK an National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) EXPERT” SERIES


NHD Google+ Hangouts Series “Ask an NEH Expert” is sponsored by the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH). NEH is an independent federal agency created in 1965. It is one of the largest funders of humanities programs in the United States. Because democracy demands wisdom, NEH serves and strengthens our republic by promoting excellence in the humanities and conveying the lessons of history to all Americans. The Endowment accomplishes this mission by awarding grants for top-rated proposals examined by panels of independent, external reviewers. NHD is one such recipient of NEH’s funding and support.


IMPORTANT RESOURCES & LINKS

Below are some important resources and links from NEH that support the ideas and lessons found in the NHD Google+Hangout series:

Featured NEH-supported Projects:


Download the NHD Contest Rule Book in English at http://www.nhd.org/wp-content/uploads/Contest-Rule-Book.pdf or Spanish at http://www.nhd.org/wp-content/uploads/397-084_Contest_Rule_Book_Layout_FNL_SP_rev1_Lo.pdf


See student examples of projects and students’ experiences from past NHD contests and programs. click on link: See More Examples


Sources: http://www.nhd.org/classroom-connection/google-hangouts-and-webinars/, and

http://www.nhd.org/

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Social Studies 3rd Six Weeks Unit Overview

Community Celebrations, Customs, and Traditions


Unit Overview:

In this unit, students learn about celebrations, and build an understanding of how communities work and what makes them unique. One thing that binds a community together are shared celebrations. Since customs and traditions are a focus of this year’s study, this unit bundles student expectations that look at how communities, including the national community, celebrate a collective identity. Across Texas, communities celebrate a great variety of things – a common cultural heritage, community spirit, natural resources and environment, work, and people - all of which contribute to the sense of community. Individual towns/communities have an identity that is celebrated through recognition of ethnic, cultural, and community celebrations. Communities celebrate issues of local importance, and those celebrations serve to strengthen the communities. So, when a town celebrates Founder's Day or Frontier Days or the Chili Festival, or a local event such as the town's high school homecoming – the community says, "this is who the people in this community are" defining a communal identity. Celebrations, customs, and traditions help build and strengthen communities contributing to defining that communal identity. Students learn about national and local celebrations as a way communities define themselves.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Patriotic - inspired by love of country
  • Nation - a country; a self-governing political entity whose people share a common culture
  • History - a chronological record of significant events (as affecting a nation or institution) often including an explanation of their causes; events of the past


clipart: clipartbest.com

Social Studies 3rd Six Weeks Unit Overview

America: Celebrating Who We Are


Unit Overview:

In this unit, students learn ways people relate to the national community. Since the theme or overarching concept for first grade is relationships, this unit looks at people’s relationships to the national community. Students begin to identify who they are as individuals in relation to the country as they begin to find their place in the world. The unit looks at what Americans believe in and who we are as a people. As they have since the beginning of the year, students look again at the characteristics of good citizenship and at people who have exemplified good citizenship. The unit helps students build a sense of national identity and what it means to be a citizen of the United States.


The unit looks at several “patriots and good citizens” who exhibited characteristics of good citizenship. Stories of George Washington show him embodying the characteristic of truthfulness. Stories of Abraham Lincoln show him being responsible and accepting responsibility in daily life. Benjamin Franklin is the epitome of responsibility in daily life and of participation in government since he was intimately familiar with the issues of the new nation. Martin Luther King, Jr., believed in fairness and equality for all. Eleanor Roosevelt was concerned about fair treatment for all. In this unit we celebrate these people and their actions as we celebrate America and what it stands for.


Students build an understanding of the similarities and differences between the local community, the state, and the nation. Students look deeper into what it means to be a good citizen of the United States through their study of “patriots and good citizens” George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Benjamin Franklin. Studying the patriotic celebrations for Veteran’s Day is also part of the this unit, thus including local people and contemporary figures who exhibit good citizenship.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Celebrate – to observe a notable occasion with festivities; to honor (as a holiday) especially by ceremonies or by refraining from ordinary business; to mark (as an anniversary) by festivities or other deviation from routine
  • Pledge – a binding promise or agreement to do; The Pledge of Allegiance is a declaration of American patriotism, originally published in 1892 in The Youth’s Companion, and probably written by one of the magazines editors, Francis Bellamy. The original words read: “I pledge allegiance to my Flag and the Republic for which it stands; one nation indivisible, with liberty and Justice for all.” The phrase “my Flag” became “the flag of the United States of America” in 1924, and in 1942, the U.S. government officially recognized the pledge. Twelve years later, in 1954, the phrase “under God” was added and a law codified the proper behavior to adopt when reciting the pledge: stand straight, remove any headgear, and place the right hand over the heart. “I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and to the republic for which it stands: one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.”
  • Historical figures – people associated with past happenings who achieve some notability are historical figures.



clipart: moodle.kingsley.k12.mi.us

Social Studies 3rd Six Weeks Unit Overview

Remembering Heroes


Unit Overview:

In this unit, students learn about celebrations that recognize the contributions of patriotic heroes to our communities. These heroes include U.S. Veterans, whose contributions to America are recognized on Veterans Day, which falls during this unit, and on Memorial Day. Specific heroes addressed include Women Air Force Service Pilots (WASPs) of WWII and Navajo Code Talkers. Local heroes are also included, requiring some research, including using a variety of valid visual sources such as pictures, maps, electronic sources, literature, reference sources, and artifacts, and a variety of valid oral sources such as conversations and interviews.


Thanksgiving also falls within the time period of this unit for most school districts on traditional calendars. Thanksgiving is addressed as a significant cultural celebration and an opportunity to revisit some of the ideas and ideals that are worth fighting for and defending.


Students learn that people, individually and in groups, change communities. The Navajo Code Talkers and Women’s Air Service Pilots are studied here, along with Veteran’s Day. Thanksgiving is studied through exploration of questions such as, “What are we thankful for?” and, related to being good citizens, “What decisions and actions do we need to take to ensure we maintain those things for which we are thankful?” Students learn that members of a community share values that they celebrate, and that individual good citizens make choices that change communities.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Veteran – someone who has served in the military
  • Good citizen – someone who lives responsibly within the laws of society. Characteristics of good citizenship include truthfulness, justice, equality, respect for oneself and others, responsibility in daily life, and participation in government by educating oneself about the issues, respectfully holding public officials to their word, and voting
  • Source – a book, statement, person, etc., supplying information. A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study; a secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. Secondary sources are one or more steps removed from the event


clipart: jerome.northbranfordschools.org

Social Studies 3rd Six Weeks Unit Overview

People Influence Communities: Heroes


Unit Overview:

In this unit students learn about individuals whose choices and actions show them to be heroes of their own communities. Students learn about people who are heroes of the local community, the state, and the nation.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Hero – one who shows great courage and is admired for achievements and noble qualities; individual who made significant contributions to a historic event

Communities Change Over Time


Unit Overview:

In this unit, students address communities and how they change over time.

Students look at their communities and apply what they have learned about reasons people form communities, rights and responsibilities that come with being part of a community. They then look more closely at the local community and see how it has changed over time, sometimes as a result of changes to the physical environment and sometimes because of actions of individuals.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Human processes – processes in which human beings are involved. Examples of human processes include urbanization (city development), migration, economic development, settlement, and the formation of political systems. They also have short-term and long-term impacts on the landscape. As humans pollute the environment or construct houses and cities, the environment suffers both immediate and long term consequences. Natural resources destroyed by overuse, such as oil, cannot be quickly replaced. People attempt to control human processes through regulation and they try to reduce the impact of the physical in a variety of ways, such as building diversion ditches to reduce flooding, or installing tornado warning systems
  • Physical processes – naturally occurring processes that change the earth’s surfaces. There are four types of physical processes that operate in the atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Examples of physical processes include changes in landforms, weather, climate, vegetation, and soils. Continental drift (plate tectonics) is also a physical process, as are erosion, tornadoes; floods, and earthquakes.
  • Community – a group of people interacting for mutual well-being in a particular geographic location giving each other both freedom and security.

clipart: www.maryville-schools.org

Social Studies 3rd Six Weeks Unit Overview

Revolution


Unit Overview:

In this unit, students examine the tensions between Texas settlers and the government of Mexico that began to grow, and resulted in the desire for independence. The time period surrounding the Revolution was one of enormous influence in Texas history.


Students learn about the causes and effects of the Texas Revolution. Leadership was key to this event in Texas history, so students examine the quality of leadership and the people involved in the revolution.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Dictator –a government leader who takes control by force and makes all important decisions.
  • Independence –freedom from rule by another country.
  • Revolution –a sudden, radical, or complete change that takes place in a relatively short amount of time; a fundamental change in the way of thinking about or visualizing something; includes fundamental change in political organizations such as the overthrow of one government with another, though not limited to political revolutions (i.e., the Industrial Revolution, the Enlightenment, the Technological Revolution)
  • Treaty –an agreement between groups or countries.


Republic and Statehood


Unit Overview:

In this unit, students address the Republic of Texas and statehood. Once the revolution was over and Texas was an independent nation, the Republic of Texas faced many challenges as it became a new nation, but the Texans also had great leaders who led them through those challenges. Understanding point of view is an essential skill in this unit.


Students learn about the successes, problems and people that impacted the Republic of Texas. During the years as a republic, Texas organized itself financially and politically, and eventually became a part of the United States in 1845. Statehood brought many economic opportunities for Texans. In future units, students will learn about the sectional pressures that soon forced Texans to choose to either remain part of the United States or to leave it.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Annexation – the process of adding something; to add (an area or region) to a country, state, etc.; to take control of (a territory or place)
  • Cession – land given to another country; the act of giving up something (such as power, land, or rights) to another person, group, or country (verb: cede)
  • Manifest Destiny – the belief that the United States was meant to stretch from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
  • Representative Government – a government in which citizens elect people to speak or act for them.
  • Republic – a form of government in which the people choose their leaders; a country that is governed by elected representatives and by an elected leader (such as a president) rather than by a king or queen. A constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.
  • Treaty – an official agreement between groups or countries


Clipart: www.atlanta.k12.ga.us

Social Studies 3rd Six Weeks Unit Overview

A Nation is Born


Unit Overview:

In this unit, students address events related to building a new nation. After the revolution a new system of government was created and reflected the principles outlined in the Declaration of Independence. Strong leadership was needed to help the new nation survive.


Students analyze the Articles of Confederation to identify why it was unsuccessful as the founding document for the new nation. Students study about the federalist and anti-federalist differences and the compromise created to resolve this conflict. Additionally students take a more in depth examination of the structure of the United States government, the Bill of Rights and the nature of citizenship in the new nation.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Democracy – government in which the power belongs to the people and exercised directly by the people or by elected agents under a free electoral system
  • Citizenship – the condition or status of being a citizen, with its rights and duties
  • Responsibility – a duty or task that you are required or expected to do; something that you should do because it is morally right or legally required
  • Checks and Balances – the U.S. Constitution authorizes the branches of government to share powers with other branches and thereby check their activities and power.
  • Constitutional republic – a state where the head of state and other officials are representatives of the people and must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the government's power over all of its citizens; in a constitutional republic, democratic processes are used to elect the representatives


American Identify


Unit Overview:

In this unit, students address the Louisiana Purchase, the War of 1812, and the development of the American identity.


During this unit students learn about the period when the new nation was developing politically, economically, geographically and socially. Students examine how the war with Great Britain in 1812, and the addition of the Louisiana Purchase changed the United States and contributed to the development of the American culture. Students study about the symbols, traditions, and landmarks that are unique to the American identity by exploring answers to important questions, such as Who are we as Americans? What is important to Americans? In what do Americans believe?


Key Vocabulary:

  • National Identity – a shared set of beliefs, culture, traditions, ideas adopted by people living within a country
  • Patriotism – strong feelings of love or devotion to one’s country and if necessary, one will fight to defend it


clipart: www.loudoun.k12.va.us

Social Studies 3rd Six Weeks Unit Overview

Legacy of Colonialism: Latin America


Unit Overview:

In this unit students study Latin America as a culture region. Latin American culture has been shaped by the process of cultural diffusion facilitated by colonialism, the Columbian Exchange, and the forced migration of Africans. This region is characterized by a cultural blending of traditions from indigenous populations, Africans, and Europeans. The region is also dominated by the use of Spanish and Portuguese and the traditions of Roman Catholicism.


Students examine Latin America’s physical geographic patterns, the human geographic characteristics of the region prior to colonization, and the process of cultural diffusion in the region with an emphasis on how the legacy of colonialism influenced the creation of a unique cultural pattern in the region.


Key Vocabulary:

  • demography – the study of human population in terms of numbers, especially birth rates, death rates, ethnic composition, age and gender distributions
  • cultural diffusion – the process of spreading cultural traits from one region to another
  • Columbian Exchange –an interchange of plants, animals, disease, people, and culture between the Western and Eastern hemispheres following the voyages of Columbus
  • deforestation – clearing forests to use the area for other purposes
  • renewable resource – refers to a natural resource that can be replenished naturally
  • non-renewable resource – refers to natural resources that cannot be remade or replenished


We are Family: Europe


Unit Overview:

In this unit, students study Europe as a cultural region that is divided into many political regions, yet unified by many common cultural characteristics. These characteristics include common religious, linguistic, and historical patterns.


Students examine the physical patterns in Europe, the history of conflict and cooperation in the region, and how current efforts to unify Europe affect cultural patterns in the region. Students learn about how physical geography impacted economic development in Europe, how during the twentieth century Europeans have struggled with world conflicts, and how the European Union facilitated unity in the region. Additionally students learn about the continuing challenge to assimilate immigrants in Europe.


Key Vocabulary:

  • ethnicity – a group that shares common cultural traits, such as language
  • nationalism – an extreme devotion to a country characterized by a lack of questioning of state authority
  • assimilation – adopting new cultural practicesgenerallyfrom a dominate culture group
  • supranational organization – a collection of multiple states that make up a larger groupthat goes beyond national boundaries
  • transportation corridor – an area of land that includes lines of transportation, like railroads, highways, canals
  • peninsula – a piece of land that is connected to a mainland but juts is surrounded on three sides by water
  • standard of living – refers to the wealth and purchasing power of a particular group
  • literacy – the ability to read and write
  • factors of production – conditions needed to create goods and services in an economy, generally land, labor, and capital
  • monumental architecture – large man-made structures generally created for the public to remember an event or individual


cliart: www.dvusd.org

Social Studies 3rd Six Weeks Unit Overview

Unrest and Revolt in Texas – 1821-1836


Unit Overview:

During this unit, students study about the attempts by Mexican officials to control the settlers in Texas, the changes in the Mexican government that effected Texans, and the events of the Texas Revolution. Students relate to the issues and events surrounding the fight in Texas for independence from Mexico. As tensions grew in Texas, Mexican officials attempted to impose more control over the settlers. Eventually political changes in Mexico forced settlers in Texas to pursue independence. While the movement towards independence had been growing for years, it took less than a year for Texans to gain independence. During that time, Texans met to form a new government as well as battled Mexico’s army at Gonzales, the Alamo, Goliad, and San Jacinto. The victory at San Jacinto signified the end of Mexican rule in Texas. Students should see the parallels between the American Revolution and the Texas Revolution.


Key Vocabulary:

federalists – those in Mexico who supported the establishment of a federal system of government like that in the United States
centralists – those in Mexico who favored a strong central government with power concentrated among a few leaders
revolution – a movement to bring about change
siege – surrounding a fortification to cut it off from supplies
delegate – a person acting as a representative for others
republic – type of government with elected representatives
courier – a messenger generally delivering correspondence
treaty – an agreement between national governments– those in Mexico who supported the establishment of a federal system of government like that in the United States
centralists – those in Mexico who favored a strong central government with power concentrated among a few leaders
revolution – a movement to bring about change
siege – surrounding a fortification to cut it off from supplies
delegate – a person acting as a representative for others
republic – type of government with elected representatives
courier – a messenger generally delivering correspondence
treaty – an agreement between national governments


Republic of Texas and Early Statehood – 1836-1861


Unit Overview:

During this unit, students study about the issues faced by the leaders of the Republic of Texas, the events that led to annexation of Texas by the United States, the causes and consequences of the war between Mexico and the United States, and issues related to the influx of European immigrants to Texas in the mid1800s. Students address the issues and events surrounding the Republic of Texas and the process of Texas becoming a state in the United States. After Texans gained independence from Mexico, Texas became a nation that faced many challenges. The new republic was modeled after the U.S. republic and some Texans wanted Texas to join the United States. Early leaders of the Texas republic worked to provide security for Texans, establish government services, and address financial issues. Eventually Texans decided that many of the financial problems faced by the republic could be solved by joining the United States. The annexation of Texas triggered a boundary dispute with Mexico and war broke out between Mexico and the United States. The treaties that ended the war established the borders of Texas. The vast amounts of cheap land available in Texas during the mid1800s fueled European immigration to Texas. This immigration gave shape to the unique culture of Texas.


Key Vocabulary:

annexation – adding territory to existing territory
manifest destiny – idea that the United States should expand to include the territory from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean
compromise – an agreement in which both sides give up some demands
foreign relations – dealings between countries
domestic affairs – relating to issues within a home country
cession – something that is given up in a treaty, generally territory


clipart: imgarcade.com

3rd Six Weeks Unit Overview for 8th Grade Social Studies-US History to 1877

Early Republic – Addressing Challenges 1789-1828


Unit Overview:

During this unit, students examine the challenges faced by the early United States government and how those challenges are addressed, the development of political parties, and the War of 1812. Students also study the development of foreign policy based on the perspectives of the early presidents. Students address the years of the Early Republic and the impact made by the early presidents on the republic.


Key Vocabulary:

republic – political system in which representatives are responsible for governing
impressment – forcing someone into service for an organization or government
political party – groups of people sharing a common political philosophy and support for candidates with that philosophy
foreign policy – government actions in relations to other countries
isolationism – policy of separating and not participation in international relationships
neutrality – remaining independent and not taking sides in an issue


Age of Jackson – Democracy Expands 1820s-1830s


Unit Overview:

During this unit students study about the impact of expanded suffrage and the presidency of Andrew Jackson, including the changing social conditions, the Nullification Crisis, economic issues, and policies toward American Indian tribes. The Nullification Crisis and the ensuing debate regarding states’ rights are significant issues in the build up to the Civil War. This unit bundles student expectations that relate to the Age of Jackson.


Key Vocabulary:

nullification – the idea that states can refuse to follow federal laws
spoils system – the practice of public officials given jobs or favors to supporters
suffrage – the right to vote
states’ rights – powers given to the states as interpreted in the U.S. Constitution, generally seen as a check to federal powers


clipart: http://www.schoolrack.com/

3rd Six Weeks: Unit Overview for High School US History since 1877

Boom Time – 1920s America 1920-1929


Unit Overview:

During this unit, students study about the post-First World War “return to normalcy” with a resurgence of big business, political scandal, and an economic boom characterized by overproduction and mass consumerism. Additionally students examine how the rapid social and cultural changes of the 1920s resulted in increasing nativism and clashes between those embracing the changes and those wanting to preserve traditional society. This unit bundles student expectations that focus on the political, economic, social, and cultural changes taking place during the 1920s, a period sometimes referred to as the Roaring Twenties.


Key Vocabulary:

migration – movement from one place to another
consumerism – increased buying of products
tradition – relating to long established styles or ideas
modernity – relating to recent or contemporary styles or ideas
red – American slang referencing communism


Economic Bust – the Great Depression 1929-1939


Unit Overview:

During this unit students study the causes of the depression, the economic and social impact of the depression, the economic impact of the Dust Bowl on the agricultural sector, Roosevelt’s New Deal efforts, and the changing role of government brought about by the New Deal. This unit bundles student expectations that address the Great Depression and the New Deal response to the economic depression.

Key Vocabulary:

economic depression – a sustained economic decline characterized by high unemployment, low levels of production, and business failures
social welfare – government provided services
drought – sustained period with no precipitation and restricted water access


clipart: www.drumright.k12.ok.us

3rd Six Weeks: Unit Overview for United States Government

Judicial Branch: The Courts and Civil Liberties


Unit Overview:

During this unit students gain an understanding of the U.S. court system and how it functions to protect minority viewpoints and individual rights. This unit bundles student expectations that address the third branch of government, the Judicial Branch, as created in Article III of the Constitution.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Judicial system – the system that administers justice through courts of law; the judicial branch of government
  • Judicial activism the process of issuing judicial decisions to shape national policies. Those who support judicial activism believe the courts should be aggressive in applying the U.S. Constitution to address social and political issues. I
  • Judicial restraint – self-imposed limitation by judges to issue judicial decisions that address social and political questions but not to use the decisions to bring about change. Those who support judicial restraint believe that it is not the role of the courts to make policy and that the courts should uphold legislative acts unless they violate the Constitution
  • Judicial review – the judicial branch is responsible for interpreting and applying laws and ensuring that they are constitutional. The concept of judicial review dates back to the 1803 decision Marbury v. Madison when Chief Justice John Marshall, acting within the powers of Article III, ruled that “the Constitution is superior to any ordinary act of legislature. . . and must govern,” thus strengthening federal authority over state and private authority when an issue threatens rights established in the Constitution
  • Jurisdiction –the power, right, or authority to interpret and apply the law; the limits or territory within which authority may be exercised (from Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary)


State and Local Government


Unit Overview:

During this unit students apply what they have learned about the three branches of the national government to understand state and local governments. This unit bundles student expectations that address the structure, functions, and powers of state and local governments.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Political system – a system is a group of parts or elements that work together to form a complex whole. A political system is a system of politics and government. The U.S. is a federal system, which means that power is divided between a central/national government and the states. There are three branches to the government, each with powers that are checked and balanced against one another. Power in the U.S. originates in the people;
    consent of the governed” is a key belief in the U.S. system
  • Constitutionalism – the idea that the basic principles and laws of a government should be organized and administered through compliance with a written or unwritten constitution. The constitution effectively restrains the powers of the government and guarantees certain rights to the people. In the U.S.the national constitution is considered the supreme law of the land, meaning all laws and actions of government must not conflict with it.

Government and American Culture


Unit Overview:

During this unit, students, recognizing that identifying and forming opinions about contemporary government issues is essential to a strong democracy, choose a contemporary issue to analyze and suggest actions regarding that issue. This unit bundles student expectations that focus on the role of government in shaping American society.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Participation – the act of taking part or sharing in something. In order to function, the U.S. political system allows and requires that its citizens participate in the processes of government.


clipart: blogs.swa-jktcom

3rd Six Weeks: Unit Overview for Economics

Macroeconomics – Government Policy


Unit Overview:

During this unit students interpret data and economic indicators, such as unemployment rate, Gross Domestic Product, Per Capita GDP, inflation, and economic growth, to determine what a of the business cycle and analyze the data to predict changes. They analyze more deeply the role productivity plays in economic growth and analyze how the Constitution affects the role of government in the economy (building on introduction to the ideas begun in Unit 2, Celebrate Freedom Week). Students identify taxes that are paid to the government and categorize the taxes into the type of tax (progressive, regressive or proportional). Students identify the different spending categories of each level of government and analyze how government spending is changing and growing. Additionally they examine the federal budget and identify types of budgets such as deficit budget and surplus budget. Students identify the current national debt and analyze the affect this debt could have on the economy. Students identify the types of fiscal policy and demonstrate their understanding by analyzing economic data to determine which policy would be the appropriate action for the government to take. This unit bundles student expectations that address the role of government in the economy and the role of economic indicators in determining public policy.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Business cycle – a pattern to the general level of economic activity or the production of goods and services. Characterized by periods of increased economic activity and periods of decreasing economic activity.
  • Economic indicators – statistical data showing general trends in the economy. (Examples: unemployment, industrial production, GDP, stock market prices)
  • Gross Domestic Product – the dollar value of all final goods produced within the borders of the U.S. during a one year period
  • Inflation – a general rise in the level of prices in an economy
  • Unemployment – the number of people who do not have a job but are actively seeking employment

Macroeconomics – Money, Banking, and Federal Reserve


Unit Overview:

During this unit students learn about the banking system and Federal Reserve and analyze the effects of monetary policy on the nation’s supply of money. They describe the functions and characteristics of money and differentiate the different types of money or sources of value of money including commodity, representative, and fiat money and compare and contrast the positive and negative aspects of barter, currency, debit cards and credit cards. Students describe the structure and functions of the Federal Reserve System and analyze how the Federal Reserve uses the tools of reserve requirement, discount rate, and open market operations. Students examine the federal funds rate and understand that the Federal Reserve targets the federal funds rate. This unit bundles student expectations that address money and the banking system, including the Federal Reserve system and monetary policy.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Money – anything commonly accepted in exchange for goods and services
  • Federal Reserve System – privately owned, publicly controlled system which serves as the nation's central bank. The Federal Reserve regulates the supply of money in the economy through interest notes or by altering the reserve requirement, discount rate, and open market options. The Federal Reserve also supplies paper currency, called Federal Reserve Notes, holds banks’ reserves, provides check clearing services, and supervises member banks. The System consists of a seven member Board of Governors with headquarters in Washington, D.C., and twelve Reserve Banks located in major cities throughout the United States.
  • Monetary Policy – the Federal Reserve’s policy of regulating the availability of credit and the money supply to deal with economic instability (unemployment and inflation)
  • Reserve requirement – the percentage of deposits that the Federal Reserve requires banks to hold on reserve and not lend out
  • Discount rate – the interest rate that the Federal Reserve charges commercial banks for loans
  • Open Market Operations – interventions by a central bank to manipulate liquidity levels by buying or selling short term securities. When it sells the securities, the central bank soaks up the liquidity, and when it buys them it injects liquidity in the local economy. The Federal Open Market Committee makes key decisions regarding the conduct of open market operations. The FOMC, the monetary policymaking body of the Federal Reserve System, is responsible for formulation of a policy designed to promote economic growth, full employment, stable prices, and a sustainable pattern of international trade and payments.



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3rd Six Weeks: Unit Overview for World Georgraphy

Europe


Unit Overview:

In this unit students learn about how Europeans have adapted to the physical environment, created various economic systems with high levels of development, and formed various political and regional boundaries, including the European Union. Additionally students learn about how Europe is a region that is cultural unified by Christianity, a common history, common language patterns, and common political ideas. Yet the region is political divided into several nation states and cultural enclaves, while economically unified by the European Union. In this unit students learn about how Europeans have adapted to the physical environment, created various economic systems with high levels of development, and formed various political and regional boundaries, including the European Union. Additionally students learn about how Europe is a region that is cultural unified by Christianity, a common history, common language patterns, and common political ideas. Yet the region is political divided into several nation states and cultural enclaves, while economically unified by the European Union.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Globalization – can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society and function together
  • Characteristic –a distinguishing feature or quality
  • Supranationalism – the principle or practice of international cooperation above and beyond national limitations. Examples: NATO, UN, EU
  • Enclave – an enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the foreign territory that surrounds it (Ex. Albanian cultural group in Serbia).
  • Exclave – a territory whose geographical boundaries lie entirely within the boundaries of another territory (ex. Kaliningrad).
  • North Atlantic Drift – (also known as the North Atlantic Current) part of a clockwise-setting ocean-current system in the North Atlantic Ocean, extending from southeast of the Grand Bank, off Newfoundland, Canada, to the Norwegian Sea, off northwestern Europe. It constitutes the northeastward extension of the Gulf Stream; the latter issues from the Gulf of Mexico and gradually emerges as the North Atlantic Current in mid-ocean. The warm wind coming off of this water helps create a temperate climate along the eastern coast of North America and the western part of Europe. It is very important to the climate of the continent of Europe.

Russia and the Republics


Unit Overview:

This unit focuses on the physical geography of this area as well as the unique cultures of Russia and its former republics. During the twentieth century Russia transitioned from a westernizing nation under the power of a tsar to an industrial communist state and to a democratic nation turning toward capitalism. During this time Russia expanded to absorb surrounding people and their territories only to revert to the original Russian territory. Despite such major changes in the political and economic systems of Russia and the Eurasian Republics, the people have maintained a rich cultural heritage. This unit focuses on the physical geography of this area as well as the unique cultures of Russia and its former republics. During the twentieth century Russia transitioned from a westernizing nation under the power of a tsar to an industrial communist state and to a democratic nation turning toward capitalism. During this time Russia expanded to absorb surrounding people and their territories only to revert to the original Russian territory. Despite such major changes in the political and economic systems of Russia and the Eurasian Republics, the people have maintained a rich cultural heritage.


Key Vocabulary:

  • Cultural diffusion – the process of knowledge, skills, and technology being spread from one culture to another
  • Demographics – a statistical anaylsis of the characteristics of a population
  • Dictatorship – a country, government, or the form of government in which absolute power is exercised by a dictator.


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3rd Six Weeks: Unit Overview for World History Studies

Medieval Rebuilding and Reconsolidation 600-1450


Unit Overview:

During this unit students study about the rebuilding of political, economic and social systems in Europe, Southwest Asia and China that characterized the Post-Classical Era. In this unit students examine how European leaders, unified by Christianity, created new political and economic systems in the region; how Islam served as a unifying force for a Muslim empire built in Southwest Asia; and how China reconsolidated around Confucian philosophies during the Tang and Song dynasties. This unit bundles student expectations that address the major events during the Post-Classical Era (600 to 1450) which deal with the rebuilding of political, economic and social systems that collapsed with the fall of the Roman and Han Empires.


Key Vocabulary:

  • feudalism –a form of political organization that is characterized by a relationship between a lord and a vassal where the lord exchanges land for military service from the vassal
  • manor –economically self-sufficient estate of land controlled by a lord
  • fief – parcel of land given to a vassal by a lord
  • caliphate – the lands comprising the political-religious state of Muslims ruled by a caliph
  • scholar-gentry –class of Chinese officials who passes civil service exams to work in the bureaucracy
  • monotheism worship of one god
  • schism –a division over a difference of opinion, generally used in the case of split over religious differences
  • Pope – religious leader of the Roman Catholic Church
  • Patriarch – a religious leader in the Eastern Orthodox Church


Interactions and Diffusion 600-1450


Unit Overview:

In this unit students study about the increasing interactions between various groups during the Post-Classical Era and the resulting changes in social, cultural, and economic patterns. Students examine diffusion along the Silk Routes, the Indian Ocean trade complex, and trade along the trans-Saharan routes. Additionally students examine the impact of the Mongol invasions and the events that led to the end of the feudal and manorial structures of medieval Europe. This unit bundles student expectations that address the major events during the Post-Classical Era (600 to 1450) which deal with the interactions that occurred between Christian, Jews, Muslims, Hindus, and Mongols.


Key Vocabulary:

  • diffusion –the spread of cultural elements from one area or group of people to others by contact
  • pilgrimage – a journey to a religious site
  • Crusades –series of war fought between Christians and Muslims from the 11th-13th centuries for control of the Holy Land
  • monarchy – political system in which a single ruler gains power through inheritance
  • excommunicate –to exclude someone from participation in the sacraments
  • inquisition – an official investigation, usually conducted by a political or religious group


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Source for Unit Overviews: TEKS Resource System

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