Austria, France and Italy
The Government Type: Federal Republic
Leader and Title: President Heinz Ficher
Limited or Unlimited: Unlimited
European Union Member: Yes
Current Government Event or Concern: Austria’s two biggest political parties, the Social Democrats and the Austrian People's Party, make worst showings in decades in national election, losing votes to array of smaller parties, but retaining enough seats in Parliament to stay in power.
Historical Political Event:Brimming with ethnic tensions and locked into a rigid system of alliances from the 19th century wars, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was a catastrophe waiting to happen. The necessary spark was the assassination of the Austrian archduke and heir to the throne, Franz Ferdinand in June 1914 in Sarajevo. Austria’s declaration of war against Serbia marked the beginning of World War I.
Historical Monument: Carnuntum, Hofburg Imperial Palace, Mauthausen Concentration Camp
A Person Who Changed History and How:Otto Koloman Wagner was an Austrian architect and urban planner. He is known for his lasting impact on the appearance of his home town Vienna, to which he contributed many landmarks.
Population: 8.47 Million
%Arable Land: 16.63
Agriculture: Although small, the agricultural sector is highly diversified and efficient. Most production is oriented toward local consumption.
Example of Human Enviroment Interaction: Global Warming is melting the snow; Young trees in the mountains are getting detroyed by the frequent skiing.
GDP: $399.6 Billion
GDP per capita: $47,226.2
Exchange Rate to U.S. Dollars: 1 Euro = 1.36 U.S. Dollar
Major Economic Activities:Austria has a strong economy with machinery, metallurgical products and textiles being of particular importance. The country's most important industry, however is tourism.
Famous Brands of the Country: Red Bull, Swarovski,
Religion: Roman Catholic
Famous Landmarks: Hallstatt
Cultural Foods: Weiner Schnitzel
Music/Literature: The Sound of Music
Location (Relative): Austria is in central Europe, surrounded by Germany, Czech Rep., Switzerland, Italy, Slovenia, ect.
Climate: Austria is located in a temperate climatic zone. The four seasons (Spring, Summer, Fall and Winter) each have typical temperature and climatic characters.
Topography: Most of western and central Austria is mountainous, and much of the flatter area to the east is hilly.
The Government Type: Constitutional French Republic
Leader and Title: President Francois Itollande
Limited or Unlimited: Limited
European Union Member: Yes
Current Government Event or Concern: Fed up with French-Bashing in the UK media, France's embassy in London has published a fierce rebuttal of a British newspaper’s allegation that “France’s failed socialist experiment is turning into a tragedy”.
Historical Political Event: (1804) In Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte is crowned Napoleon I, the first Frenchman to hold the title of emperor in a thousand years.
Historical Monument: Eiffel Tower
A Person Who Changed History and How: Napoleon Bonaparte
Population: 65.7 Million
%Arable Land: 33.54
Agriculture: France is among the largest agricultural exporters in the world and a major agricultural power in the EU, accounting for 16% of all its agricultural land. Fifty per cent of the French territory is agricultural land, while 30% is covered with forests. Agriculture employs close to 1 million people (3.4% of the active population) on 490 000 farms with an average size of 55 hectares. One fourth of the farms use a quality brand and 18% of them sell their products via short distribution chains, often directly on the farm.
Example of Human Environment Interaction:They have powerplants to make their energy, they have a lot of dirty water and they have made mostly cities in France. Although they still have farmland, rain varies in differnet parts of France, but in Nice they get 32.4" of rain on average per year. October is the rainiest month and July the driest. In Paris they get 23.9" of rain. July is their rainiest month and January the driest.
GDP: $2.613 Trillion
GDP per capita: $39,771.84
Exchange Rate to U.S. dollar: 1Euro = 1.36 U.S. Dollar
Major Economic Activities: France’s economic freedom score is 63.5, making its economy the 70th freest in the 2014 Index. Its overall score has decreased by 0.7 point due to declines in monetary freedom, fiscal freedom, and business freedom. France is ranked 33rd out of 43 countries in the Europe region, and its overall score is slightly higher than the world average but below the regional average.
Famous Brands of the Country: Louis Vuitton, Dior, L'OREAL, Axe
Religion: Free Religion
Famous Landmarks: Eiffel Tower
Cultural Foods: Crêpes
Music/Literature: The music of France reflects a diverse array of styles. In the field of classical music, France has produced a number of legendary romantic composers, while folk and popular music have seen the rise of the chanson and cabaret style. The earliest known sound recording device in the world, the phonautograph, was patented in France by Edouard-Leon Scott de Martenville in 1857. France is also the 5th largest market by value in the world, and its music industry has produced many internationally renowned artists, especially in the nouvele chanson and electronic music. Literature written in French language, by citizens of other nations such as Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, Senegal, Algeria, Morocco, etc. is referred to as Francophone literature. As of 2006, French writers have been awarded more Nobel Prizes in Literature than novelists, poets and essayists of any other country. France itself ranks first in the list of Nobel Prizes in literature by country. French literature has been for French people an object of national pride for centuries, and it has been one of the most influential components of the literature of Europe
Location(Relative): France is in Europe; south of Belgium and Luxembourg, west of Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, north of the Mediterranean Sea and Spain, and east of the Atlantic Ocean.
Climate: Average temperature, rainfall and snowfall information is available for the following climate stations in France
Topography: France topographically is one of the most varied countries of Europe, with elevations ranging from sea level to the highest peak of the continent, Mont Blanc, on the border with Italy. Much of the country is ringed with mountains. In the northeast is the Ardennes Plateau, which extends into Belgium and Luxembourg; to the east are the Vosges, the high Alps, and the Jura Mountains; and along the Spanish border are the Pyrenees, much like the Alps in ruggedness and height.
The Government Type: Constitutional Italian Republic
Leader and Title: President Giorgio Napolitano
Limited or Unlimited: Limited
European Union Member: Yes
Current Government Event or Concern: The newspaper of Italy's anti-immigrant Northern League party has come under fire for a new feature listing the daily whereabouts of the country's first black cabinet minister.
The "Here's Cecile Kyenge" feature was launched days after the Congolese-born Kyenge was once again heckled during a weekend appearance in Brescia by Northern League and other right-wing extremists. Northern League leaders have called for new protests at a Kyenge event this weekend.
Historical Political Event: 1870; Following the defeat of Napolean lll in the French-Purssian War, Italian forces occupy Roma, which becomes the new capital of Italy the following year. The Italian Army breaks into the walls of Rome by the breach of Porta Pia.
Historical Monument: Leaning Tower of Pisa
A Person Who Changed History and How: Marco Polo was a trader and explorer who was born on September 15, 1254 and died on January 8, 1324. He was one of the first to travel to China and visit Kublai Khan.
Population: 60.92 Million
%Arable Land: 23.12
Agriculture: Of Italy's total land area of 72.6 million acres, 26.9 million acres, or 37.1% of the land, were under annual or permanent crops in 1998. Small, individually owned farms predominate, with the majority t7.4 acres or less. In 2001, about 5% of the economically active population was in the agricultural sector.
Example of Human Environment Interaction: There are some poachers in Italy that are taking wildlife from national parks, are killing them.The people of Italy has been dumping trash, some of it toxic, around Naples. Which produces the best mozzarella.
GDP: $2.03 Trillion
GDP per capita: $33,048.75
Exchange Rate to U.S. dollar: 1 Euro = 1.36 Dollar
Major Economic Activities: Italy’s economic freedom score is 60.9, making its economy the 86th freest in the 2014 Index. Its overall score is 0.3 point higher than last year, with improvements in investment freedom and trade freedom counterbalanced by modest declines in monetary freedom, business freedom, and freedom from corruption. Italy is ranked 35th out of 43 countries in the Europe region, and its score is above the world average.
Famous Brands of the Country: Gucci, Lamborghini, Ferrari, Nutella
Religion: Roman Catholic
Famous Landmarks: Leaning Tower of Pisa
Cultural Foods: Pasta/Pizza
Music/Literature: Italian literature, the body of written works produced in the Italian Language that had its beginnings in the 13th century. Until that time nearly all literary work composed in the Middle Ages was written in Latin. Moreover, it was predominantly practical in nature and produced by writers trained in ecclesiastical schools. The music of Italy ranges across a broad spectrum of opera and instrumental classical music and a body of popular music drawn from both native and imported sources. Music has traditionally been one of the cultural markers of Italian national and ethnic identity and holds an important position in society and in politics.
Location(Relative): Italy is located in Southern Europe. Austria, Switzerland, France, and Slovenia are north of Italy, and Italy is bordered on the west by the Adriatic Sea, the east by the Tyrrhenian Sea, and south by the Ionian Sea, which are all part of the larger Mediterranean Sea. Italy shares its peninsula with Vatican City and San Marino.
Climate: Italy's climate, like most areas, varies depending on the time of year and the location you happen to be visiting. The weather can be extremely chilly in the winter that's perfect for skiing and then in the summer, the hot winds blow in from Africa creating a hot and dry climate. The beaches are usually always breezy and the thunderstorms that are frequent, often have their rain evaporate quickly.
Topography: The geographical features of Italy are varied; the south-western corner of the country is enveloped by Tyrrhenian Sea, while Adriatic Sea takes care of its north-eastern parts. The south-eastern Ionian Sea and the Ligurian Sea located in north-west Italy encircle the country from al possible sides and act as a shield of safety for Italy. The Geography of Italy has two mountain ranges, namely the Alps and the Apennines. The Apennine mountain range is the literal backbone of the country, surrounding the north-western parts, from where it goes to join the Alps. The natural position of both these mountain ranges acquires the shape of an arc and this semicircular topography strengthens the northern boundaries of Italy against ant possible foreign invasions and encroaches.