Respiratory System

Gionathan Zavala

Respiratory System function

Supply oxygen to blood so they can deliver by breathing. Inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide.

Adaptation to gas exchange

The alveoli come in millions in each lung. Speeding up diffusion in the lung.

carbon dioxide transfer

Carbon dioxide is transferred into blood by being dissolved in solution or bound to proteins

Major disorders

Pulmonary edema- caused by excess fluids in the lung and can cause shortness of breathing, coughing, and can be fatal. It is uncommon and can be treated with giving oxygen to the body or taking blood pressure meds.

Immune system

Function of the immune system

The function of the immune system is to protect against pathogens or viruses.

Immune system terms

Pathogen - bacteria or virus

Active immunity - an immunity that protects by responding to a presence of antigen.

Passive immunity - short term immunity

Antigen - toxic or foreign substances that provoke an immune response

Antibody - protects against bacteria

Antibiotics

Antibiotics are effective against bacteria because they block specific metabolic pathways in bacteria. Thought they are effective against bacteria they do not work against viruses because viruses require host cells to carry metabolic process.

Disorders

HIV/AIDS - can be transmitted sexually or by blood and symptoms and is common and symptoms may be pain swelling, coughing, etc.


Lupus - can be caused by sunlight and infections and is when the immune system attacks its own tissue and may cause pain ulcers.

Endocrine system

Function of the endocrine system

The function of the endocrine system is to produce hormones and glands that regulate certain things throughout the body.

Homeostasis

Integrates body activities and composition of body fluids

Negative feedback

Negative feedback is a response to counteract a certain thing. Ex : Your body temperature rises and so you start to sweat.

Disorders

Type 1 diabetes - Can be acquired by dehydration or weight loss and is common and symptoms may include urination, coughing, vomiting, etc.


Type 2 diabetes - Caused by obesity or bad diet and is very common and affects the way the body produces sugar. symptoms may be fatigue, excessive hunger, weight gain.

Skeletal system

Function

The function of the skeletal system is to provide support, protection, structure, and red blood cells.

Roles

Bones - Framework, protection, and movement.


Ligaments - makes joints.


Muscles - Movement


Tendons - move bones


Nerves - specific directions for bone movement

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Disorders

Bursitis - caused by irritate of the bursae and may cause joint pain and is common.


arthritis - is caused by normal wear and tear and may cause pain in the affected area, and is very common and can be relived with pain relievers.

Muscular system

Function

The function of the muscular system is for movement.

Tissue

smooth - contractility of hollow organs

skeletal - pull on tendons

cardiac - propel blood

Explain skeletal contracts

Release of Ca2

exposure of myosin heads

create bridge

broken

myosin heads change shape

repeat

Disorders

Muscular dystrophy - carried by mother and replaces muscle tissue with fatty and is uncommon. Symptoms may vary from trouble with standing to loss of strength.


Mythopanthy - Myopathy is a disease that causes the skeletal or voluntary muscles to become weak or wasted. Is uncommon and symptoms may include muscle weakening

Nervous system

Function

Sends communication throughout the body.

Peripheral nervous system

nervous system outside of the brain.
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Disorders

Meningitis - caused by inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. It is rare and symptoms are pain or rashes etc.

stroke - It is damage to the brain from interruption and is common and symptoms may include overreactive reflexes and etc.

Reproductive system

Function

Produce egg cells and sperm

Spermatogenisis

spermatozoa are produced from male primordial germ cells by way of mitosis and meiosis.

Oogenesis

It involves the development of the various stages of the immature ovum. the cytoplasm is also unevenly divided.

disorders

Endometriosis - a condition involving colonization of the pelvic cavity with islands of endometrial tissue. It is very common and may cause pain in the lower abdomen.


Hypospadias - is a condition in which the opening of the urethra is on the underside of the penis, instead of at the tip. The urethra is the tube through which urine drains from your bladder and exits your body. It is rare and may cause pain while urinating.