Eisenhower

Rohan Panaparambil MPL

1. Elections

Election of 1952

  • vs. Democrat Adlai Stevenson
  • Television, new at this time, changed the process of election
  • Since some Republicans were Anti-Communist, he chose Nixon to be his vice president
  • Nixon was said to be tapping government funds and Eisenhower wanted to remove him from the ticket for this reason
  • Nixon apologized in a televised speech, and Eisenhower accepted this
  • Eisenhower easily wins


Election of 1956

  • Again ran against Adlai Stevenson
  • Faced health issues, but won the election again in a blowout


2. The Cold War

Events

  • The Cold War was a drawn out tension between the dichotomous views of the democratic US and the communistic Soviet Union
  • Both countries wanted to expand their philosophy as far as possible
  • Came close to war, but no open conflict ensued
  • Eisenhower attempts to make peace with Kruschchev at Geneva
  • Space race
  • 1958 - both superpowers halt nuclear production, and Lebanon requests US aid against communism
  • 1960 - US spy plane flying over the USSR is shot down


McCarthy

  • In 1950, Sen. Joseph McCarthy accused Secretary of State Dean Acheson of hiring members of the Communist party
  • McCarthy became popular even though this accusation was revealed to be false
  • After Eisenhower won the 1952 election, McCarthy became more aggressive with his finger pointing
  • In 1954, after attempting to expose Communists in the Army, the Senate disparaged him
  • The hysteria of the Second Red Scare died down quickly after

4. Desegregation

Desegregation

  • 1950 - Sweatt v. Painter
  • challenged "separate but equal" from Plessy v. Ferguson
  • Brown vs. Board officially reversed Plessy v. Ferguson, saying segregation was unconstitutional

  • Rosa Parks doesn't give up her seat, 1955

  • 1956 - Declaration of Constitutional Principles

  • 1957 - Little Rock Crisis

  • Orval Faubus tried to prevent black children from enrolling into an all white high school in Little Rock

  • Eisenhower had soldiers escort black kids to their classes at the newly mixed high school
  • 1957 - Civil Rights Act creates a committee on civil rights

  • 1957 - Martin Luther King Jr.

5. Republicanism

Policies

  • dynamic conservatism

  • be liberal with human resources, but conservative with economic resources

  • wanted to avoid “creeping socialism”

  • cut military spending

  • reduced size of the federal government

  • encouraged private sector to compete with public relics of the New Deal

  • Operation Wetback: sent about 1 million illegal Mexican immigrants back to Mexico

  • cut back the “Indian New Deal,” wanting to return to the Dawes Act of 1887

  • Interstate Highway Act

6. The Vietnam War

Beginning of the War

  • Ho Chi Minh started to become more Communist

  • US was contributing $1B annually to help the French fight in Southeast Asia

  • French forces still could not defeat Minh’s guerrilla forces

  • French trapped at Dienbienphu

  • Geneva conference established the 17th parallel as the border

  • Southern Vietnam (pro-Western) led by Ngo Dinh Diem

  • Eisenhower supports the South as long as the undergo the slow process of social reform

Space Race

  • Oct 4, 1957 - USSR launches Sputnik into orbit

  • Sputnik II follows one month later

  • hurt America’s pride because it effectively showed that communism created more industrial efficiency

  • Eisenhower creates NASA

  • Vanguard explodes just after takeoff, televised

  • In early 1958, US sends a small satellite into orbit and begins testing intercontinental missiles

  • led to education reforms focusing on science over art