Mahatma Gandhi-The Great Souled One

By: Grace Kimura

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Background Information:

Gandhi was born in Gujarat, India on October 2, 1869. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, was born in 1822, was the Chief Minister of Porbandar, and died in 1855. His mother, Putlibai Gandhi, was Gandhi's father's fourth wife. She was very religious and cared very deeply about her family.

Gandhi's Methods and Actions

Protests- The Salt March

The Salt march occurred in 1930 from March to April in India. The cause of the march was to protest Britain's Salt Acts which prohibited Indians from buying or selling salt, and produce salt without paying tax. Citizens were forced to buy salt from the British, who placed a heavy tax on it. Indians require salt in most of their meals, so they had no choice but to buy the salt. Gandhi thought that defying the Salt Acts would be a simple way for Indians to break a British law nonviolently. So, on March 12, 1930, thousands of Indians followed Gandhi from his religious retreat to the Arabian Sea coast (about 240 miles). There he made salt from seawater. Gandhi attracted many crowds, and each day more people joined him in the march. About 60,000 people were arrested including Gandhi on April 5, 1930. But, the march continued without him. The march was a success, and in 1947, India finally got its independence.
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Hunger Strikes- September 16, 1932

After 8 months in prison, Gandhi began a hunger strike. He began this to argue the British support of a new Indian constitution that would allow a separate political representation of Indian's lowest caste, the "untouchables." He went six days without food or drink. All of his hard work paid off because Gandhi successfully had the British government reverse the separation decision, and accepted the main terms of a settlement between higher-caste Indians and the untouchables. Gandhi called the untouchables the "Children of God."

Non-Violence Non-Cooperation program

Gandhi set up a program called the Non-Violence Non-Cooperation program. The program included many different aspects to protest the British government of India to grant self-government to India. One way that he protested was boycotts. He held boycotts of councils, courts, and schools. He also held hunger strikes. Hunger strikes are refusing to eat or drink as a form of protest. His other forms of protesting were marches and sit-ins. Marches are when people march and show that they disagree with something. They sometimes shout and hold signs. Sit-ins are when people peacefully refuse to do anything that people tell them to do. All of these aspects are ways of protesting peacefully. They didn't hurt anyone, but still affected people in a powerful way.
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Timeline:

Indian Independence Begins- September 1920 to February 1922

  1. Rowlatt Acts

    1. Restrictions against Indian people

    2. Police and army were ordered to search and seize Indian property to detain and arrest any Indians without any evidence against them, and to send Indians to WWI

  2. Gandhi set up a program called the “non-violent non-cooperation” project

    1. It included boycotts of councils, courts, and schools

    2. British realized that the “non cooperation” act would completely destroy their government, which was Gandhi's goal

Gandhi Begins 21 day Fast- September 1924


  1. Gandhi decided to fast because...

    1. He wanted to “purify” himself and to "recover the power to react on the people”

    2. Cooperation between the Hindus and the Muslims was slowly decreasing

      • Gandhi attempted to fix it

  2. Made up of 2 groups

    1. The first group was led by Chitta Ranjan Das and Motilal Nehru who wanted their group to participate in the government

    2. The second group was led by Chakravarti Rajagopalachari and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel who did not want their group to participate in the government

The United Kingdom Passes the Indian Independence Act- July 1947

  1. The law was formed by the government

  2. Passed by the British Parliament

    1. Law was officially announced as the Independence and partition of India

    2. Created by Clement Attlee (Prime minister)

      • He created it because Indian Political Parties agreed to transfer the British power of the government to the Indian government and the Partition of India

The Partition of India- August 15, 1947

  1. The Partition was…

    1. A separation of Hindu-dominate groups and a new created Muslim state of Pakistan

  2. India was divided into 2 parts

    1. Muslims(Pakistan) and Hindus(India)

  3. There was violence and horrible riots

  4. Led to population movements, half billion people dead, and millions to go homeless

  5. Downfall of the British Indian Empire

Gandhi is Assassinated- January 30, 1948

  1. 7 people involved in the assassination

    1. Digambar Bagde

    2. Shankar Kishtaiyya

    3. Vishnu Karkare

    4. Gopal Godse

    5. Nathuram Godse

    6. Narayan Apte

    7. Madanlal Pahwa

  2. Pahwa tried to bribe Choturam to let him go behind the podium to take pictures of Ghandi

  3. Choturam became suspicious and asked Pahwa why

  4. Pahwa left and Choturam assumed that he went back to the taxi

  5. Pahwa really went to put a cotton ball with a bomb in it in the wall, behind the podium and light it

  6. The bomb went off, and killed Gandhi
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