Sciences and Psychology
The development of computer systems influenced the way psychologists studied the human brain and thought processes. When cognitive psychology came into play in 1960's the scientific thought at the time was of computers and the lingo became reflected in psychology as well. Terms such as input and output were used instead of stimulus and response (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2014, p.598). Mathematician, Alan Turing, founded the concept of artificial intelligence. AI investigates the extent to which computers can duplicate human "thinking" (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2014, p.595).
Donald O. Hebb believed that humans develop neural networks based on experiences, he called this theory "cell assembly" (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2014, p.571). This theory states that neurons organize themselves based on experiences and that is what allows us to interact with our environment. From cell assembly comes phase sequences, where various cell assemblies active at the same time are connected. This is directly related to many other associative theories, but Hebb's rule has grounded itself in cognitive psychology (Hergenhahn & Henley, 2014, p.601.
Hergenhahn, B. R., & Henley, T. B. (2014). An Introduction to the History of Psychology (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.