Types of Mining and Fracking
By: Michael Paul and Zack Pawloski
- Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit are removed.
- Strip mining is a type of surface mining that involves excavating earth, rock, and other material to uncover a tabular, lens-shaped, or layered mineral reserve. Mountaintop Mining is a.
- Open pit mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
- Mountaintop Mining is a form of surface mining that involves the mining of the summit ridge of a mountain.
- Subsurface mining is the extraction of minerals and ores from underground. It consist of digging shafts into the earth for ore.
- Slope mining is a method of accessing valuable geological material, such as coal or ore. A sloping access shaft travels downwards towards desired material.
- Drift is a more general mining term, meaning a near-horizontal passageway in a mine, following the bed (of coal, for instance) or vein of ore.
- Shaft mining or shaft sinking refers to the method of excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.