Types of Mining and Fracking

By: Michael Paul and Zack Pawloski

Surface Mining

  • Surface mining, including strip mining, open-pit mining and mountaintop removal mining, is a broad category of mining in which soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit are removed.
  • Strip mining is a type of surface mining that involves excavating earth, rock, and other material to uncover a tabular, lens-shaped, or layered mineral reserve. Mountaintop Mining is a.
  • Open pit mining is a surface mining technique of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow.
  • Mountaintop Mining is a form of surface mining that involves the mining of the summit ridge of a mountain.
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Subsurface Mining

  • Subsurface mining is the extraction of minerals and ores from underground. It consist of digging shafts into the earth for ore.
  • Slope mining is a method of accessing valuable geological material, such as coal or ore. A sloping access shaft travels downwards towards desired material.
  • Drift is a more general mining term, meaning a near-horizontal passageway in a mine, following the bed (of coal, for instance) or vein of ore.
  • Shaft mining or shaft sinking refers to the method of excavating a vertical or near-vertical tunnel from the top down, where there is initially no access to the bottom.
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Surface & Subsurface Mining