study guide

by nonyonna coffey


b6 helps the body make protein


100+reactions in cells conversion among amino acids production of hemoglobin and neurotransmitters

releasing stored glycogen and glucose immune function,hormone activity and nervous system development

food source:meat,fish,chicken,beans,nuts,whole grain,potatoes,bananas,watermelon

b12 and folate

b12 and folate helps cells multiply


activate each other for dna syntheses, metabolism of amino acids,maintanice of myelin sheath coverng nerves

food source :folate green leafy veggies, beans,citrus fruits,folate added to grains

b12 is only found in animal food,folate helps prevent birth defects

vitamin c

  • functions
  • formation and maintenance of collagen for bones,teeth ,skin,tendons,scar tissue, and capillaries
  • facilitates absorption of iron
  • protects substances found in foods and the body by being oxidized its self and donates electrons to recycle vitamin e
food sources

  • fruits and veggies (particularly citrus fruits)
  • need is higher in smokers because they metabilize vitamin c faster

  • scurvy

vitamin e


  • antioxidant
  • needed for nerve development
food sources

  • wheat,germ and nut oil
  • recycled by cells
  • destroyed by heating

  • loss of muscle coordination/reflexes
  • hemolytic anemia in new borns
  • common in following a low-fat diet for a long period of time or with fat malabsorption disease

vitamin k


  • clotting of the blood
  • bone growth
food sources

  • dark green leafy veggies,canola and soybeans oil
  • fortified cereals
  • liver

  • hemorrhage (bleeding)
newborns are given a dose of vitamin k when they are born

vitamin d

  • the body can make all the vitamins it needs with the help of sunlight
regulations of blood calcium and phosphorus levels

  • functions as a hormone
when more calcium is needed,vitamin d acts to raise blood calcium levels

  • food sources:butter,cream,fortified milk,fortified plant sources: margarine and cereals


  • rickets(softening and distortion of bones)typically results in child being bow legged

  • most potentially toxic of all vitamins
  • high blood calcium levels
  • calcium deposits in soft tissue bones,kidney,brain,nerves,heart, artieries

vitamin a


  • multiple function related to gene expression retinoic acid turns genes on or off to control protein production
  • helps to see
  • protect skin and mucous membranes
  • required for brain growth
  • helps with your immune resonse
  • reproduction
  • normal cell development
food sources

  • pre-formed retinol,liver,cheese,milk,fat,fatty fish(salmon,tuna),found in orange and dark green pigments in plants, carrots sweet potatatoes broccoli, dark green leafy veggies

  • blindness
  • build up of keratin over cornea also night blindness


vitamins can help regulate many vital processes and are divided into two main groups

water soluble

  • b vitamin
  • b1 thiamin
  • b2 riboflavin
  • b3 niacin
  • biotin
  • b6,folate and b12
  • are not stored in the body,
they dissolve in water and pass thru the urine

fat soluble

  • vitamin e
  • vitamin a
  • vitamin k
  • vitamin d
  • stored in fatty tissue int he body

"b" vitamin

  • associated with carbohydrates
  • needed in small amounts
  • helps your body produce energy from carbohydrates-coenzymes



  • helps make energy from carbohydrates(coenzymes)
  • nervous system and muscle function
food source

  • highest in pork products
  • whole grain food
  • grain products including bread,cereal,pasta and rice that are"enriched"

  • beri beri-loss of sensation,paralysis,muscle weakness,abnormal heart action



  • helps make energy from carbohydrates
food sources

  • milk and other dairy products
  • whole grain
  • enriches grains

  • rare in us
  • children who lack milk and meat
  • elderly



  • helps make energy from carbohydrates
  • important for health of skin,nervous system,gi tract
food sources

  • high protein foods,both animal and veggies
  • whole grain
  • enriched grain products

  • pellagra

  • high doses from supplement used to lower blood cholesterol can cause flushed skin and liver damage