The History of the River Valleys

Elbio Guedilla, Zane Erickson, Roberto Reyes, Cory Hurtubise

Mesopotamia

Cities

Many of the ancient cities were ruled by Sumer kingdom. Many of the larger cities, like Uruk were gated by large brick walls.


Government

Mesopotamia has clay tablets with laws written on them called IOUs. The kingdom had a good system of law. As villages grew bigger they turned into communities ruling themselves


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The above photo is where laws of ancient Mesopotamia were placed


Cultural Religion

Polytheism was in play for thousands of years before entering 1st century BC. After that time many people started believing in Eastern Rite and forms of Christianity.


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Social Structure

The Social Structure of Ancient Mesopotamian civilization was:


Pharaoh

Priests and nobles

Traders, artisans, shopkeepers, and scribes

Farmers and herders

Unskilled workers

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Culture- Art

Many of the arts created by Mesopotamian people were created on clay tablets or on walls. And in some cases made out of Iron. Also much of arts were created out of gold.


Writing

The earliest forms of writing in Mesopotamia were through Pictograms. Later on they developed scripts as we call cuneiforms.


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Egypt

Cities of Egypt

Cairo, Egypt is the city where the Pyramids were built. Egypt was divided into two main kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt which were separated by the Nile River.


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Cultural- Religion

Polytheistic, believing in one line of Gods going all the way to the Pharaoh whom they saw as a God.



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Social Structure

King who were perceived as Gods

Ruling Class

Craftsmen

Farmers

Marginalized Groups

Slaves


Unlike most society at the time Egypt gave women the right to sell and trade along with having their own jobs.

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Government

Egypt was united under a single government led by the Pharaoh. The people of the civilization perceived him as a God which caused fear like obedience.


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Culture - Art

Ancient Egyptian art was depicted in Painting, Sculptures and Architecture. Symbolism was a huge part of Egyptian art, most are depicted great pieces of history such as Gods and Pharaohs.


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Writing

Ancient Egyptian writing was mainly written in hieroglyphics and strings of symbols which correlate to letters. The Egyptians used hieroglyphics to record their history. Hieroglyphs could be carved into stone or written into Papyrus.


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Indus River Valley

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Cities

The Harappans used the same size bricks and standardized weights in their cities


All of the cities were pre-planned and organized

Most sophisticated water storage system in ancient world



Government

Employed a system of social divisions


Peaceful Civilization

Monarchy- Had a raja, or king

Indus Priests also were in charge of government

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Social Structure

Introduction of the Caste System

Brahmins- Priests and the king

Kshatriyas- Warriors and aristocrats

Vaishyas- Cultivators, artisans, and merchants

Shudras- Peasants and serfs (modified slavery)

Men worked within caste

Women were valued because of their ability to produce offspring

When children were old enough, they adopted their parents' role



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Culture- Religion

Hinduism ~1700-1100 B.C.E.


Polytheistic

Buddhism~ 365 B.C.E.

Monotheistic

Culture- Art

Vedas- Oldest Scriptures of Hinduism


Contained: Writings on prayers

Hymns

Religious Rituals


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China

Cities

The cities of the river valley were heavy on farming.


The cities were larger.

Through out thee cities the art and culture was beautifully displayed.

The majority of the cities were painted red.

Government

The King or Emperor was the ruler of all the people in China. Everything he ordered was done. This was a fascists government.


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Social Structure

Highest:The first class were the kings and nobles
Middle: Then came the lords and warriors
Lowest:Lastly were the peasants
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Culture-Religion

The people of the Yellow River Valleys believed that Shang Ti was the head god of the gods.


They also believed that the gods controlled their future.

They believed that the river was god like since it had power over the land and crops.


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Culture-Art

  • Made Pots
  • Wrote Poetry
  • Sang Songs
All about the River And Its power

Writing

Book of History- History of Zhou

Book of Change- Manual Diviners

Book of Rights- Etiquette and Rituals, and Aristocrats

Book of Songs- Early conditions of Zhou

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Sources

Mesopotamia


Egypt

  • "Art of Ancient Egypt." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 08 Dec. 2013. Web. 01 Sept. 2013.
  • "Ancient Egyptian Scripts." (hieroglyphs, Hieratic and Demotic). Simon Ager, 1998. Web. 01 Sept. 2013.
  • "NILE RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATION." Nile River Valley Civilization. N.p., 12 Sept. 2011. Web. 01 Sept. 2013.
  • Rose, Christopher. "Ancient Cairo." Ancient Cairo. Christopher Rose, 2005. Web. 01 Sept. 2013.
  • "Ancient | Egyptian Painting and Sculpture | Tutt'Art@ | Pittura * Scultura * Poesia * Musica |." Tutt'Art@. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Sept. 2013.



Indus River Valley


  • "Indus Valley Civilization - Ancient India Lesson Plans, Powerpoints, Games." Indus Valley Civilization - Ancient India Lesson Plans, Powerpoints, Games. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2013.
  • "Government of Indus River Valley Civ.." wikispaces.com. period20910. Web. 2 Sep 2013. <http://period20910.wikispaces.com/Government of Indus River Valley Civ.>.
  • "The Ancient Indus Civilization." Indus Civilization Introduction. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2013.
  • "8a. Early Civilization in the Indus Valley." Early Civilization in the Indus Valley [ushistory.org]. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2013.


China

  • THE FEAT OF THE YELLOW RIVER. Shanghai, n.d. Web. 31 Aug. 2013
  • Desiree, and Jocelyn. "Social Structure of Ancient China." Social Structure of Ancient China. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Sept. 2013.
  • "YELLOW RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATION." Yellow River Valley Civlization. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Sept. 2013.
  • "Yellow River." Yellow River. Chinadaily.com, n.d. Web. 01 Sept. 2013.
  • "Government - Egypt Vs. Yellow River Valley." Government - Egypt Vs. Yellow River Valley. Sites.google.com, n.d. Web. 01 Sept. 2013.