Language Arts 8th grade

Chapter 1 Subject and Predicate

1a A sentence is a word group that contains a subject and a verb that expresses a complete thought. EX sean was chosen captain of his soccer team.

1b A subject tells whom or what the sentence is about EX How surprised we were

1c The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about EX someone in the room is about to get a surprise.

1d The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject How talented you are

1e The simple predicate, or verb is the main word or word group tells something about the subject EX she did not believe me

1f A compound subject consists of two or more connected subjects have the same verb EX Kashia and Todd worked a puzzle

1g A compound verb consists of two or more verbs that have the same subject EX the dog barked

1h A declarative sentence make a statement and ends with a period EX the cat walked home .

1i An imperative sentence give a command or makes a request. Most imperative end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point. EX stop her!

1j An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends with a question mark EX what time is it?

1k An exclamatory sentence shows excitement or strong feeling and ends with exclamation point . EX what a site the sun set is!

~Anyone searching for the highest mountains must look on land and in the sea. Complete predicate; simple subject-anyone~

Chapter 2 parts of speech overview

2a A noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea EX the man walked.

2b A compound noun is made up of two or more words used together as a single noun EX basketball, Iceland, self-control

2c A common noun names any one of a group of person,place,thing,or idea. EX city, cat, dog

2d A proper noun names a particular person,place,thing or idea EX New York, The Raven

2e A concrete noun names a person , place ,or thing that can be perceived by one or more of the senses EX (sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell)

2f An abstract noun names an idea, a feeling, a quality, or a characteristic EX Zen Buddhism

2h A pronoun is a word used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns EX No one could solve the riddle

2i A personal pronoun refers to the one speaking (first person), the one spoken to (second person), or the one spoken about (third person). EX I, me, my, mine, we

2k A reflexive pronoun emphasizes a noun or another pronoun EX Yourself, Yourselves

2l A demonstrative pronoun point out a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. EX Himself, Herself

2n A relative pronoun introduces a subordinate clause EX this that these those

2o An indefinite pronoun refers to a person, place,thing, or idea that may not be specifically named EX what which who whom whose

2p An adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun EX that which who whom whosem

~Each student is required to take foreign language Each-adjective; Language-noun~

chapter 3 parts of speech overview

3a A verb is a word used to express action or state of being EX am do had can

3b An adverb is a word that modifies a verb,an adjective, or another adverb EX they said the forest fire started here

3c A preposition is a word that showed the relationship of a noun or pronoun, called the object of the preposition, to another word EX The package under the tree is mine

3d A conjunction is a word used to join words or groups of words EX and but for nor or so yet

3e An interjection is a word used to express emotion EX Oh! You surprised me.

3f the way a word is used is in a sentence determines what parts of speech it is Each was painted blue

~I am readind a book about baseball cards am reading-verd; about-preposition~

Chapter 4 Complements

4a A complement is a word group that completes the meaning of a verb EX Marine brought sandwiches

4b A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that tells who or what receives the action of the verb EX Our history class brought a model of the Alamo

4c An indirect object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that sometimes in sentences containing objects EX He showed the class his comic books

4b A subject complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a linking verb and that identifies or describes the subject EX The drink taste sower

4e A predicate nominative is a word or word group that is in the predicate and that identifies the subject or refers to it EX My aunts niece is she

4f A predicate abject is an abject that is in the predicate and describes the subject EX The chili taste spicy

~my uncle sent me a postcard Complement ~

Chapter 5 The Phrase

5a A phrase is a group of related words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain both a verb and its subject EX a painting by van Gogh, the famous painter

5b A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, and any modifiers of that object EX The seine river flows through Paris

5c A prepositional phrase that modifies a noun or a pronoun is called an adjective phrase EX MRS. O'Meara is the one on the left

5d A prepositional phrase that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb is called an adjective phrase EX Are you good at soccer

5e A participle is a verb that can be used as an adjective EX The smiling chilled waved

5f A participial phrase consists of a participle has. The entire phrase is used as an adjective EX Then, disgusted with the others duck, it pecked the mirror

5g A gerund is a verb form ending in -ing that is used as a noun EX skiing down that slope was fun

5h A gerund phrase consists of a gerund and any modifiers or complements the gerund has. The entire phrase is used as a noun EX we crossed the stream by stepping carful from stone to stone

5i An infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, and adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives begin with to EX The camel knelt at the pool to drink

5j infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive and any modifiers or complements the infinitive has. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective, or and adverb EX The crowd grew quiet to hear the speaker

5k An appositive is a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or describe it. EX The cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin was the first person in space

5i An appositive phrase consists an appositive and its modifiers EX Office Webb, one of the security grads, caught the burglar

~ Leta is watching television (Leta is the subject of the very is watching)

Chapter 6 The Clause

6a A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence. EX When she lived in Paris

6b A independent (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a complete sentence EX The sun set an hour ago

6c A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence EX that I wanted

6d An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or a pronoun EX That one which is my favorite was brought in Kenya

6e An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb EX You may sit wherever you wish

6f A noun clause is a subordinate clause that is used as a noun EX That they were angry was obvious to the others

~as i answered the telephone subordinate clause~

Chapter 7 Sentence structure

7a a simple sentence contains one independent clause and no subordinate clauses EX the hairstylist gave Latrice a new look

7b A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses and no subordinate clauses EX The whistle blew, the drums rolled, and the crowd cheered

7c A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one subordinate clause EX I feel like studying dance

7d A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one subordinate clause EX he locked the door

~many mathematical concepts originated in the north Compound sentence~

Chapter 8 Agreement

8a When a word refers to one person, place, thing, or idea, it is singular in number. when a word refers to more than one person, place, thing, or idea, it is plural in number EX egg, eggs, person, people

8b A verb should agree in number with its subject EX The car comes to a sudden stop

8c the number of the subject is not changed by a phrase or clause following the subject EX All of the salad was eaten

8d the following indefinite pronouns are singular anybody, anyone, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, nothing, no one, one, somebody, someone, and something EX Either of the answer is correct

8e The following indefinite pronouns are plural both, few, many, and several EX Both of the apples are good

8f The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be singular or plural, depending on their meaning in a sentence EX All of the fruit looks ripe

8g Subjects joined by and usually take plural verb EX Chicken and dumplings is a favorite southern dish

8h Singular subject joined by or nor take a singular verb. Plural subjects joined by or nor take a plural verb EX A pen or a Pencils needed for this test

8i When singular subject and a plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject nearer the verb EX Neither the manager nor the employees want to close the store early

8j When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure the verb agrees with it EX here is my seat

8k The contractions don't and doesn't should agree with their subject EX these gloves don't fit

8l A collective noun may be either singular or plural, depending on its meaning in a sentence EX The family has moved to little rock, Arkansas.

8m An expression of an amount ( a measurement, a percentage, or a fraction, for example) may be singular or plural, depending on how it is used EX Three years seems like a long time.

8n some nouns that plural in form take singular verbs EX civics, genetics, measles, news

8o Even when plural in form, the title of a creative work (such as a book, song, movie, or painting) or the name of a country, city, or organization generally takes a singular verb. EX blue lights is an early Georgia O'Keeffe painting

8p A verb agrees its subject but not necessarily with a predicate nominative the best time to visit is week day mornings

8q A pronoun should agree in both number and gender with its antecedent EX Bryan lost his book

8r use a singular pronoun to refer to two more singular antecedents joined by or or nor

8s use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and EX my mother and father send their regards

8t some indefinite pronouns are, plural, some are singular, and some may be either EX each of the birds built its own nest

8u either a singular or a plural pronoun may be used to refer to a collective noun, depending on the meaning of the sentence. EX the committee has given its full approval

8w An expression of an amount may take a singular or plural in form take singular pronouns EX I spilled the molasses and had to clean it up

8x Use a singular pronoun to refer to the title of a creative work ( such as a book, song, movie, or painting) Ex after reading neighbors I recommended it to Juanita

8y use a singular pronoun to refer to the name of a country, city, or organization. EX the knights of Pythia's expects its members to maintain high moral standards

~the car comes to a sudden stop singular~

chapter 9 using verbs correctly

9a the four principal parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past, and the past participle EX I sing in the school Glee Club

9b a regular verb forms its past and past participle by adding d or ed to the base form EX she used to work in the store

9c An irregular verb forms it s past and past participle in some other way than by adding d or ed to the base form EX ring, rang, have rung

9d The tense of a verb indicates the time of the action or state of being expressed by the verb EX we write, you write, they write

9e Do not change needlessly from one tense to another EX when we are comfortable, we began to do our homework

9f A verb in the active voice expresses an action done by its subject. A verb in the passive voice expresses an action done to its subject EX the school librarian has formed a book club

~A happy clown delivered the balloons Active Voice~

chapter 10 Using pronouns correctly

10a the subject of a verb should be in the nominative case. EX I like country music

10b a predicate nominative should be in the nominative case EX the last one to leave was he

10c A direct object should be in the objective case EX Evan surprised them

10d an indirect object should be in the objective case EX his mother built him a footlocker

10e an object of a preposition should be in the objective case EX to lee

10f the personal pronouns in the possessive case my, mine, you, yours, his, hers, its, our, ours, their, theirs, are used to show ownership or possession EX this jacket is hers

10g the use of who or whom in a subordinate clause depends on how the pronoun functions in the clause EX do you know who they are

10h A pronoun used as an appositive is in the same case as the word to which it refers EX The coach threw a party for us players

~my friend took me to the rodeo direct object ~

chapter 11 using modifiers correctly

11a if a word in the predicate modifies the subject of the verb use the adjective form. if it modifies the verb, use the adverb form. EX he moved awkwardly

11b three degrees of comparison are the positive, the comparative, and the superlative EX sharp, meek, simple, delicate, and safe

11c the comparative and superlative degrees of some modifiers are not formed by the usual methods EX good, bad, better, best

11d use the comparative degree when comparing two things. use the superlative degree when comparing more than two EX of the two tape players, this one costs least

11e include the word other or else when comparing one member of a group with the rest of the group. EX Jupiter is larger than other planet in the solar system

11f avoid using double comparisons EX the Asian elephant is smaller than the African elephant

11g Avoid using double negatives EX we have no extra chairs

11h place modifying words, phrases, and causes as near as possible to the words they modify. EX my aunt has seen Alost all of the documentaries directed by Camille billows

~His movements were awkward Adjective~

chapter 12 A glossary of usage

12a A EX he did not consider himself a hero