West Immigration

Kaitlen Shelton

Helen Hunt Jackson

Helen Maria Hunt Jackson, born Helen Fiske, was an American poet and writer who became an activist on behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the U.S. government. She described the adverse effects of government actions in her history A Century of Dishonor. Her novel Ramona dramatized the federal government's mistreatment of Native Americans in Southern California after the Mexican American War and attracted considerable attention to her cause.

Morrill Act

The Morrill Land Grant Act are United States statutes that allowed for the creation of land grant colleges, including the Morrill Act of 1890 and the Morrill Act of 1890. For 20 years prior to the first introduction of the bill in 1857, there was a political movement calling for the creation of agriculture colleges. The movement was led by Professor Jonathan Baldwin Turner of Illinois College. The Michigan Constitution of 1850 called for the creation of an agricultural school, though it was not until February 12, 1855, that Michigan Governor Kinsley S. Bingham signed a bill establishing the United States first agriculture college, the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, which served as a model for the Morrill Act.

Dawes Act

The Dawes Act of 1887 adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians. Those who accepted allotments and lived separately from the tribe would be granted United States citizenship. The Dawes Act was amended in 1891, and again in 1906 by the Burke Act.

Chief Joseph

Popularly known as Chief Joseph, or Young Joseph, succeeded his father Tuekakas as the leader of the Wal-lam-wat-kain band of Nez Perce, a Native American tribe indigenous to the Wallowa Valley in northeastern Oregon, in the interior Pacific Northwest region of the United States. He led his band during the most tumultuous period in their contemporary history when they were forcibly removed from their ancestral lands in the Wallowa Valley by the United States federal government and forced to move northeast, onto the significantly reduced reservation in Lapwai, Idaho Territory.