Human Body Systems Project

Victoria Moreno 4th Period

Digestive System

The Digestive System converts food into simpler molecules that can be used by cells; absorbs food; eliminates waste

Mouth: The first stop in the disassembly of your food; the mechanical digestion is the chewing and the chemical digestion is the enzymes found in saliva.

Esophagus: Muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach

Stomach: Muscular pouch like organ where involuntary muscular churning and chemical digestion occurs.

Small Intestine: Narrow muscular tube where digestion of food is completed with the help of enzymes

Large intestine:

Anus: The last part of the feces are eliminated from the rectum, through the anus.

Liver: Produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats

Pancreas: Secretes enzymes to help break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats

Gall bladder: Stores bile produced by the liver

Explain why digestion of large food molecules is essential.

Food needs to be broken down and reassembled. Large food molecules need to be broken down into smaller ones.

Explain the need for enzymes in digestion.

Enzymes break down large food molecules into smaller ones. Speeds up the process of digestion by lowering the activation energy for the reaction.

Explain at least two major disorders that occur within this system.

Cirrhosis: Chronic liver damage from variety of causes leading to scarring and liver failure.

Symptoms: Swelling in extremities, mental confustion, red palms, breast enlargement, dark urine, itching, enlarged veins around the belly button, tenderness, swollen veins in the lower esophagus, bruising, muscle weakness, swelling, shortness of breath, or bleeding.

Occurrence: Occurs in the age of 19 and up people.

Treatment Options: Antibiotics, antiviral, Diuretic, and Laxative.

Gastric Cancer: Stomach cancer.

Symptoms: Significant weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, gastrointestinal bleeding, and difficulty swallowing.

Occurrence: Not that commonly anymore in the U.S., but people of the ages 19 and up are more likely to get it.

Treatment Options: Irinotecan, Leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and flurouracil, all by injections.

Excretory System

The Excretory system eliminates waste products from the body.

Explain 2 major disorders

Kidney stones

Smaller sized deposits of calcium

Symptoms- vomiting, nausea, painful urination, frequent urination, fever, chills, sharp pain of back or sides, bloody or smelly urine, etc.

Occurrence-13% in men 1% in women

Treatment Options: taking lots of fluid and pain killers


The inflammation of the bladder

Symptoms:pain or difficulty when urinating, foul-smelling urine, pain or soreness of abdomen, cloudy urine, blood in urine, etc.

Prevalence: 6.2 million people

Treatment options: antibiotics for bacteria

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Circulatory System

The circulatory system bring oxygen, nutrients and hormones to cells; fights infections; to removes cell wastes; regulates body temperature.

Explain the relationship between the structure and function of arteries, capillaries and veins.


1. thick outer layer of longitudinal collagen and elastic fibers prevents leaks and bulges.

2. thick wall withstands high pressure

3. thick layers of circular elastic fibers and muscle fibers to pump blood

4. Narrow lumen to maintain high pressure


1. thin layer with few circular elastic fibers and muscle fibers as blood does not flow in pulses

2. thin walls so that nearby muscles can help push blood towards the heart

3. thin outer layer of longitudinal collagen and elastic fibers as pressure is low

4. wide lumen to slow flowing blood


1. wall is one cell layer this so distance for diffusion is small

2. pores allow plasma to leak out and form tissue fluid. Phagocytes can also pass through pores

3. Very narrow lumen so that many fit in a small space.

Explain the route of blood through the heart.

When a heart contract and forces blood into the blood vessels, there is a certain path that the blood follows through. The blood moves through a circulation and then continues on through the systemic circulation. Pulmonary and systemic are the the two circuits in the two circuits in the two-circuit system of higher animals with closed circulatory system.

Describe the composition of blood, including plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.

Plasma: Fluid portion of the blood

Eythrocytes: (red blood cells) carry oxygen to the body cells

Leukocytes:(white blood cells) defend against disease

Platelets:Cell fragments needed for blood clotting

Explain at least two major disorders that occur within this system.

Atherosclerosis:hardening and narrowing of the artery caused by a build up of plaque.

Symptoms: chest pain, pain in the leg, arm, and anywhere else that an artery is blocked, shortness of breath, fatigue, confusion, muscle weakness due to lack of circulation

Treatment Options:Medications and surgery

Aortic Aneurysm: Abnormal enlargement or bulging of the aorta, the largest blood vessel of the body

Symptoms: chest pain and back pain

Occurrence:Should run in the family

Treatment: Surgery

Respiratory System

The respiratory system provides oxygen needed for cellular respiration and removes carbon dioxide from the body.

Describe the features of alveoli that adapt them to gas exchange.

Alveoli is the sacs at the end of the Bronchioles where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged.

Discuss how carbon dioxide and oxygen are transported in the blood.

Circulatory: Brings oxygen to the cells and carbon dioxide back to the lungs

Excretory: Part of the excretory system to get rid of toxic carbon dioxide from the body

Explain at least two major disorders that occur within this system.

Asthma:Condition in which a person's airways become inflamed, narrow and swell.

Symptoms:Coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness.

Occurrence:One in 12 people

Treatment Options:Medication

Lung Cancer: A cancer that begins in the lungs and most often occurs to those who smoke.

Symptoms:Hoarseness, swelling of the neck and face, pain and weakness in the shoulder, arm, of hand. difficulty swallowing.

Occurrence:Leading cancer killer in both men and women in the U.S.

Treatment Options:Surgery, a wedge, lobectomy.

Skeletal System

The skeletal systems performs vital functions, support, movement, protection, blood cell production, calcium storage and endocrine regulation, that enable us to move through life.

State the roles of bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons and nerves.

Bones:The bone has three major functions; one is to support by providing a framework for the attachment of muscles and other tissues. Second, is to protect, such as the skull and rib cage protect internal organs from injury. The last function, is to move, it is enable body movements by acting as levers and points of attachment for muscles

Ligaments:The ligaments provide joint stability. Their primary function is to prevent movement that might damage joint.

Muscles: The main function of the muscular system is movement. Related to the function of movement the muscle maintain the posture and body posture.

Tendons:The function of tendons is to connect muscle tissues to bones. This connection enables the tendons to regulate forces between muscle tissues during movement so that the body remains stable.

Nerves:The role of nerves, in particular, motor neurones, is that they transmit the instructions to move the body or part of the body as the brain says to.

Explain at least two major disorders that occur within the system.

Osteoporosis:A disease of the skeletal system, particularly among elderly, resulting in the loss of bone tissue.

Symptoms:None, but may experience back pain

Occurrence:Q in 3 women over age of 50 will experience osteoporotic fractures as will 1 in 5 men over the age of 50

Treatment Options:It can be medically manageable

Bursitis:A disorder that causes pain in the body's joints.

Symptoms:Pain all over the body. Also experience sweating, limping, and tenderness.

Occurrence:1 in 31

Treatment Options:Medically

Muscular System

The muscular system produces voluntary movement; circulates blood, moves food through digestive.

Explain skeletal muscle contracts, including the release of the calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the formation of cross-bridges, the sliding of actin and myosin filaments and the use of ATP.

An action potential from a motor neuron triggers the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Calcium ions expose the myosin heads by binding to a blocking molecule. The myosin heads form a cross-bridge within actin binding sites. ATP binds to the myosin heads and breaks the cross-bridge. The hydrolysis of ATP causes the myosin heads to change shape and swivel-this moves them towards the next actin binding site. The movement of the myosin heads cause the actin filaments to slide over myosin filaments, shortening the length of the sarcomere. Via the repeated hydrolysis of ATP, the skeletal muscle will contract.

Explain at least two major disorders that occur within this system.

Muscular Dystrophy: A group of diseases that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass. In this disease, abnormal genes interfere.

Symptoms :Breathing problems and swallowing.


Treatment Options:Medication

Myositis:Inflammation in muscles

Symptoms :Fatigue after walking or standing, tripping or falling, trouble swallowing or breathing

Occurrence:1 out of 100,000.

Treatment Options:Only treat the symptoms, high dosage of corticosteriod.

Nervous System

The nervous system recognizes and coordinates the body's response to changes in it's internal and external environments.

Define central nervous system and peripheral nervous system and list the major parts of each.

Central nervous system:Controls the sensory information and responding accordingly

Peripheral nervous system:Connects the CNS, limbs, and organs together. Going back and forth between the brain and extremities with communication.

Explain at least two major disorders that occur within this system.

Bell's Palsy:Involves paralysis of the facial nerve. Causes weakness of the muscles on one side of the face.

Symptoms :Face because paralysis, drooping of upper eyelid and/or numbness.

Occurrence:100,000 people per year

Treatment Options:Medically

Motor Neurone: Disease of the motor system and causing muscle weakness and wasting.

Symptoms :Muscle problems and loss of problems. Vocal cord spasm. Shortness of breath.

Occurrence:Middle age, but fewer than 20k cases per year

Treatment Options:Medical and medications.

Reproductive System

The reproductive system produces reproductive cells; in females nurtures and protects developing embryo.

Briefly describe the basic process of spermatogenesis.

Spermatogenesis is the process of the production of sperms from the immature germ cells in males. It takes place in seminiferous tubules present inside the testes. During spermatogenesis, a diploid spermatogonium (male germ cell) increases its size to form a diploid primary spermatocyte. This diploid primary spermatocyte undergoes first meiotic division (meiosis I), which is a reductional division to form two equal haploid secondary spermatocytes. Each secondary spermatocyte then undergoes second meiotic division (meiosis II) to form two equal haploid spermatids. Hence, a diploid spermatogonium produces four haploid spermatids. These spermatids are transformed into spermatozoa (sperm) by the process called spermiogenesis.

Briefly describe the basic processes involved in oogenesis. Why is there an unequal division of cytoplasm?

Gametogenesis, the production of sperm (spermatogenesis) and eggs (oogenesis), takes place through the process of meiosis. In oogenesis, Diploid oogonium go through Mitosis until one develops into a primary oocyte, which will begin the first meiotic division, but then arrest; it will finish this division as it develops in the follicle, giving rise to a haploid secondary oocyte and a smaller polar body. The secondary oocyte begins the second meiotic division and then arrests again; it will not finish this division unless it is fertilized by a sperm; if this occurs, a mature ovum and another polar body is produced. In spermatogenesis, diploid spermatogonia go through mitosis until they begin to develop into gametes; eventually, one develops into a primary spermatocyte that will go through the first meiotic division to form two haploid secondary spermatocytes. The secondary spermatocytes will go through a second meiotic division to each produce two spermatids; these cells will eventually develop flagella and become mature sperm.

Explain at least two major disorders within this system.

Endometriosis: medical condition that occurs when the lining of the uterus.

Symptoms :Horrible cramping during menstruation.

Occurrence:5 million women in the U.S.

Treatment Options:Pain medication, hormone therapy, and surgery.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease(PID):an infection in the female reproductive organs.

Symptoms :Painful urination, pain during sex, chills, high fevers, vomiting.

Occurrence: 1 million women are effected.

Treatment Options: Antibiotics and surgery