Unit 5 injury in sport

Injuries and Illnesses

Causes of injury

Alignment- After an injury it is essential for joints to return to proper alignment. A good rehab program will include exercises that target joint stability. This is most important following a lower extremity injury.

Intrinsic factors- They can be anything from contact injuries as a result of a tackle in football or road running traumas that affect the bone, to soft tissue injuries that can occur through playing tennis or through skiing. Injuries can occur during a sporting activity but may also be due to an everyday musculo-skeletal condition that requires treating.

Loading- Is all the impact on to a bone or a joint which will cause it to break. E.g. when a football puts their weight down on to the floor as they go to kick the ball.

Extrinsic Factors- Extrinsic injuries occur as a result of a fall a twist or an impact contact with another player. These are often unavoidable and a certain level of injury will occur regardless of the skill, fitness and conditioning of the individual. In this case treatment tries to speed up the repair process and ensure that there are no residual problems as a result of the sports injuries. In general these types of injuries are considered more straightforward as the cause of the injury is clear and the type of treatment required is easily determined.

Four different types of injuries in sport

Brusing- A bruise is also called contusion happens when part of the body is struck and the muscle fibres and connective tissue undernath are crushed but the skin doesn't break. You can get a bruise if you bump or bang into things or they bump into you. This could happen if it was a physical contact sport, e.g. like boxing they get a lot of bruising because of the force that would hit them at. You would get a black eye, bruising on their backs because the force they would fall on their backs. This could be stopped by wearing more protection also if boxers had a cut or a starting of a bruise then they would put vaseline on it.


Concussion- The brain is made up of soft tissue and it's cushioned by blood and spinal fluid. When someone gets a cut or blows to the head or hits something very hard, the brain suddenly shifts inside the skull and can knock against the skull's bony surface. It also can cause concussion which last for a short period of time. This could happen in football because if you get hit in the head by the ball, or if another player jumps for the ball at same time as another player they can clash heads and it could cause concussion. In football you can prevent it by watching where the other player if before you jump up for the ball.


Blisters- A blister is a small pocket off tissue within your upper body layers of the skin. Typically caused by forceful rubbing, burning, freezing and chemical exposure or infection.

Graze- These are the most common injury to the skin, this happened when you fall on the floor when you’re running around or someone trips you over.

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Concussion

Signs and symptoms of a mild brain injury, or concussion, can show up right after the injury, or they may not appear until days or even weeks afterward. Concussion symptoms can include: headaches, Weakness, Numbness, Confusion, Nausea and Vomiting. How to treat conccussion Have the person stop activity and rest. Also to apply ice wrapped in a washcloth. If possible stay with the person for 24 hours. If the symptoms last for 7 to 10 days ring your doctor.

ILLNESSES

Asthma can be caused by smoking or your short breathed or high blood pressure in the lungs is called pulmonary hypertension. A family history of asthma or other related allergic conditions such as eczema, food allergy or hay fever.

  • Coughing from asthma often is worse at night or early in the morning, making it hard to sleep. Wheezing is a whistling or squeaky sound that occurs when you breathe. Chest tightness. This may feel like something is squeezing or sitting on your chest.Shortness of breath. Some people who have asthma say they can't catch their breath or they feel out of breath. You may feel like you can't get air out of your lungs. How to treat asthma got the your GP and they will do a check to see if you have asthma. If you do have asthma then you will get an inhaler. The inhaler will make you breath better as you are getting more oxgyen to your lungs.

  • Heart attack - Heart failure is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to the rest of the body. It may affect the right, left, or both sides of the heart. Right-sided heart failure means that the right ventricle of the heart loses its pumping ability. Left-sided heart failure means that the left side of the heart loses its ability to pump oxygenated blood that it has received from the lungs forward to the remainder of the body.(www.nhs.co.uk) The causes off heart attack can be caused by diabetes, high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome (high triglycerides, high blood pressure, excess body fat around the waist, and high insulin levels), smoking ,chronic kidney disease, alcohol abuse and lack of exercise. The symoptoms of heart attack is that you get chest pains.

    Asthma can be caused by smoking or your short breathed or high blood pressure in the lungs is called pulmonary hypertension. A family history of asthma or other related allergic conditions such as eczema, food allergy or hay fever.

  • Coughing from asthma often is worse at night or early in the morning, making it hard to sleep. Wheezing is a whistling or squeaky sound that occurs when you breathe. Chest tightness. This may feel like something is squeezing or sitting on your chest.Shortness of breath. Some people who have asthma say they can't catch their breath or they feel out of breath. You may feel like you can't get air out of your lungs. How to treat asthma got the your GP and they will do a check to see if you have asthma. If you do have asthma then you will get an inhaler. The inhaler will make you breath better as you are getting more oxgyen to your lungs.