By: Lizbeth Segovia 5th Period
What was the change?
Who were the people associated with this change?
Nicolaus Copernicus was an astronomer that began to question the Greek idea of the earth being in the center of the Earth. This polish astronomer wanted to know the movements of the sun, moon, and planets, which were not explained enough in the geocentric theory created by Aristotle and Ptolemy. He believed in an ancient Greek idea where they thought that the sun was at the center of the universe. After years of careful observations he finally proved that everything in the universe revolved around the sun. Although he made an important discovery he did not publish his theory, because he feared that many scholars would reject this theory because of their religious believes, and feared that they would persecute him. He finally decided to publish his discoveries in 1543, which was the last year he lived.
Johannes Kepler was an impressive mathematician, who continued the works of Tycho Brahe. He created certain mathematical laws that explained the motion of the planetary things. For example he proved that the planets revolved around the sun in elliptical orbits instead of circular orbits as they thought. Kepler's ideas demonstrated that Copernicus's theory was right, with mathematical reasoning.
Galileo built upon this astronomical ideas by building his own telescope, and making closer observations of the planets. With the observations he made he published a book called "Starry Messenger," where he proved that Jupiter had four moons, and that the sun had dark spots. The discoveries he was making was challenging the Catholic church, because they didn't want people to think that the Catholic church was wrong. The church did something to stop this, and called Galileo to trial. In 1633, they made Galileo read a signed confession were he agreed that the ideas of Copernicus were false.
By the mid-1600's, The ideas of all the scientist who contributed to the Heliocentric theory changed the whole view in physics and astronomy. Issac Newton discovered a simple theory of motion, but very important. He did the great discovery of Gravity, which is where the motion of every object in the universe attracts every object, depending on the mass of the object, and the distance between them.