ECOSYSTEM ALTERATION means that water litter can harm ecosystems.

1. Mechanical beach raking uses a tractor or other mechanical device to remove marine debris from beaches and marine shorelines. This can harshly impact shoreline habitats.

2. This removal technique can be harmful to aquatic vegetation, nesting birds, sea turtles, and other types of aquatic life.

3. Beach raking also can contribute to beach erosion and disturbance of natural vegetation.


1. Marine life can become entangled in marine debris causing serious injury or death.

2. ENTANGLEMENT can lead to increased vulnerability to predators, or other injury, suffocation, starvation or drowning.

3. Lastly, marine debris (marine litter) can constrict an entangled animal's movement which can cause exhaustion, or develop an infection from deep wounds caused by tightening material.


1. Marine debris can contribute to the transfer and movement of invasive species.

2. Floating marine debris can carry invasive species from one location to


3. In a study performed by the British Antarctic Survey, it was discovered that man-made debris found in the oceans has approximately doubled the number of different species found in the subtropics.


Marine animals mistake water litter for food. EX. Turtles take plastic bags as squid and marine birds think pellets are fish eggs. Ingestion can lead to malnutrition. EX. A shark eating a water bottle. The water bottle will block the shark’s digestive system, making it weaker day by day....... Some marine litter contains very dangerous toxic substances that can cause death or reproductive failure. EX. Fish, shellfish or any other marine life.


Water litter prevents air and light coming in, which stops the growth of plants. EX. The coral reef needs air and light. If there is no light and air, it will also stop photosynthesis, which is an important part of the Earth’s lifecycle!! EX. If the coral reef would stop growing then that could harm the ocean ecosystem which would affect the rest of the world!! The last supporting detail would be: if marine litter continues to block light and air, the plants will also lose their most important feature, giving us oxygen!! EX. Oxygen is essential to all life, including us, so if we don’t get oxygen, this could mean that all oxygen-dependent could eventually die if we continue to throw trash in the water!!


Marine litter produces all negatives such as killing animals and plants! EX. Marine life and plants. Marine litter has detrimental side effects on animals, because it passes on to them, hazardous germs and toxins. So when we eat them, we are getting passed on these hazardous germs and toxins. EX. When we eat a fish, we don’t know if it has eaten a plastic water bottle, so that can harm us. It has a dangerous effect on the world!! Because of marine litter most marine life are either sick or dying. EX. Marine litter has affected about 663 species!! :(:(