Ashleigh Sage

Role: Geographer

Mesopotamia was located where present day Iraq is. It lay between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. These rivers are still in Iraq. The word Mesopotamia means "land between rivers" in Greek.


The climate in Mesopotamia is:

  • Modern Day- The average temperatures in Iraq range from higher than 48 degree C (120 Fahrenheit) in July and August to below freezing in January. A majority of the rainfall occurs from December through April and is heavier near mountain regions and may reach 100 centimeters a year in some places.
  • Ancient Day- The climate for ancient Mesopotamia has a range that varies from hot to cold seasons, often with the temperature going over 110 degrees. Mesopotamia had moderate rain fall, although if a lot of rain fell, the rivers could overflow. (Until the built the irrigation systems!!)

Role: Historian

Invaders of Mesopotamia

There are a few civilizations that tried to invade Mesopotamia. They are the Hittites, the Kassities, the Assyrians, and the Chaldeans. Below is a time line and a little more information on these civilizations that tried to take on the Mesopotamians.
The Chaldeans lead to power, because Assyrian empire fell. The Assyrian empire fell because as stated earlier, the king had chosen people to lead small parts of his empire. Unfortunately, these people had different ideas and argued p, which lead to war within this empire. Also, the king of the Chaldeans, Nebuchadnezzar II, restored Babylon to its original glory.

Hammurabi's Laws

I think that a civilization should have a few things in order to be a good one. They should definitely have a strong army. They should have a social structure based on economic power. They should also have a smart king. This is where Hammurabi comes in. Hammurabi is the king of the Babylonian empire at this time. Hammurabi came up with this thing called Hammurabi's laws. These laws are important, because they deal with aspects of daily life and keep things fair, and safe. In this code of laws there were a lot of laws. There were 282. Although there are 282, I am going to list 5 that caught my attention.

5 Laws That Caught My Eye:

1. If any one ensnare another, putting a ban upon him, but he cannot prove it, then he that ensnared him shall be put to death.

65. If the gardener do not work in the garden and the product fall off, the gardener shall pay in proportion to other neighboring gardens.

252. If he kill a man's slave, he shall pay one-third of a mina.

259. If any one steal a water-wheel from the field, he shall pay five shekels in money to its owner.

271. If any one hire oxen, cart and driver, he shall pay one hundred and eighty ka of corn per day.

The Epic of Gilgamesh

The story of Gilgamesh is an epic. An epic is a retold story that is passed down from generation to generation. It is kind of like a legend. Here is the epic of Gilgamesh.

Gilgamesh is a superhero. He is actually the first "superhero". He was 1/3 man and 2/3 god. He had a friend that was also 1/3 man and 2/3 god. They started as enemies, but later became friends. They heard of this awful daemon who lived in a cedar tree forest. A cedar tree is a holder of very nice, valuable wood. Many people have been to scared to go and get cedar trees, which are used for doors and gates in their city. They, of course, went to see this so called horrible daemon themselves. They got to the forest and started to cut down a tree. Then they heard a nasty growling behind them and turned face to face with a ugly demon. He claimed to kill them if they didn't turn around and go away, but his claim became the reverse. The two "superheros" "saved the day" and made the cedar tree forest available for harvesting.

Role: Archaeologist

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon

As you learned earlier, King Nebuchadnezzar II restored Babylon to its original beauty. What you didn't learn is that he added just a little bit more. This is known as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Many people believe that the Hanging Gardens of Babylon was a gift for a homesick wife. King Nebuchadnezzar built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon because his wife missed her homeland, which was full of mountains, shrubbery, and fields of grass. Compared to the bare, hot land of Mesopotamia...could you blame her for wanting to go back? The Hanging Gardens of Babylon aren't actually hanging from a rope or anything...they just appear that way from the bottom view. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon is a fake mountain that is full of beautiful plants and shrubbery for the queen. You could say that it was fit for a queen.


The Mesopotamians made many great contributions of objects that we use today. Here are 4 that I think are really important.

  • The wheel
  • The sailboat
  • The chariot
  • Cuneiform


I think that cuneiform is a very important invention from the Mesopotamians, because those odd looking symbols to us, are what lead to our familiar looking symbols we have today. Instead of writing down letters on paper with a pencil, people back then used a stylus and wet clay. The stylus was a wooden tool that had a triangle on the end and was carved to have a straight line on the side. You made letters by imprinting a pattern on the wet clay with either the triangle or the line. Pictured above are my initials.

Social Classes

Like any good empire, Mesopotamia had a social structure, based on economic power. At the top of the structure are the priests. They were very important people. They were believed to have direct conversation with the gods. They were also doctors at the time. Next up is the upper class. Both men and women wore jewelry, especially rings. Men wore skirts, they had long beards, mustaches,and hair. Women wore dresses, had long hair that was either in a braid or fancy up do. Next, is the lower class. They worked very hard for their lifestyle. (Ex. Their house, clothes, amount of food, etc.) Last is the slaves. They were taken from conquered cities and sold for a price between the cost of a donkey to the cost of a cow.