Mining and Fracking


Surface mining

examples of surface mining are:

  1. strip mining: This type of mining is done by first removing the overlying soil and rock. It erodes the soil and makes it infertile.
  2. open pit mining: This is a technique of removing minerals and rocks from an open pit on the earth. this type of mining is commercially important. It reduces agriculture and grazing capacity causes noise pollution.
  3. mountain top removal: This type of mining involves the removal of the summit of the mountain the soul purpose id for extracting coal. It causes removal of the top soil, destruction of the forests, disturbs the diversity.

Subsurface mining

examples of subsurface mining are:

  1. slope mining; a shaft makes its way downwards toward the minerals in an inclined pattern. pollution of water, erosion of soil, land becomes unfit of cultivation.
  2. drift mining: it is a horizontal way in a mine. this method is mainly used to extract ore. the are done when rocks and minerals are on the side of a hill. It causes deforestation and lose of biodiversity.
  3. shaft mining: it is a method of excavating a tunnel vertically causes erosion and extinction of species.


Fracking is the process of drilling down into the earth before a high pressure water mixture moves towards the rock to release the gas.

#It is done by creating a horizontal well near a vertical well, the horizontal well full of water is then pumped at high pressure. this causes rocks to break and releases natural gas and oil.

#It causes contamination of the ground water and surface water, and it also causes air pollution.