English Civil War

1640-1660

King Charles I vs. Parliament

The English Civil War was between the King and Parliament. King Charles had been ruling without Parliament, but had to assemble parliament again in order to gain money in 1640. Parliament still upset about being disbanded confronted King Charles. The start of the civil war was when King Charles I raised his flag at Nottingham. Parliament and the King were having a power struggle and neither wanted to back down. The nobility, land owners and Anglicans, supported King Charles I and we're called Royalists. The lower classes supported parliament and we're called Parliamentarians. Parliament won the war and King Charles was sentenced to death. Oliver Cromwell, a parliamentarian, took the throne after the war.

Important Battles: Edge Hill (1642), Marston Moore (1644), Naseby (1645)

  • Edge Hill was a battle on October 23rd 1642. The Royalists gained an advantage from the battle. The armies were almost even at 15000.
  • In the Marston Moor battle, fought on July second 1644, was won by the Parliamentarians. The Royalists were outnumbered by 10000. The parliamentarians killed 4000 and captured 1500.
  • The battle of Naseby (June 14th 1645) was another Parliamentarian victory. The Royalists lost a thousand soldiers, and the Parliamentarians lost less than 150.


Cromwell's Letter

In Cromwell's letter he describes his armies situation and asks for more men and horses to fight for the Parliamentarians. This letter to Sir Thomas Fairfax helps the Parliamentarians win an important battle.



http://www.olivercromwell.org/Letters_and_speeches/letters/Letter_20.pdf


Significance

During this war England was weakened. It had no main government, the government was at war with itself. It also changed the government power. The King no longer had absolute control, and Parliament had more say.