War Of 1812

Causes

1. Impressment- Britain and France went to war again in 1803, america declared neutrality and wanted to trade with both. Neither britain or france accepted neutrality.

Britain again captured ships and kidnapped sailors.

2. Economic Problems: Embargo of 1807- Jefferson proposed an embargo to avoid war

The " Damn Bargo ": embargo act of 1807- American stopped all trade with europe Good result- kept american ships safe and avoided war

-Bad result- W/O European trade the american economy suffered

3. War Hawks - these congressmen of the United States persuaded Congress and the president to support a declaration of war against Britain

4. Shipping interference. Britain set up a blockade of the east coast preventing trade between America and any other nation. The blockade created a shortage of cotton cloth in the United States.

EFFECTS OF WAR !

  • The United States gained a measure of international respect for managing to withstand the British attack.
  • Improved the professionalism of the US Army.
  • The manufacturing capabilities of the US expanded. Since the blockade had caused a shortage of cotton cloth, the cotton-manufacturing industry was created. The United States had to rely on US made goods instead of imports.
  • Numerous manufacturing establishments (factories) were founded particularly in the North and the South was able to increase its agricultural economy. The United States industrially independent of Europe.
  • Improvements were made to transportation routes including the building of roads and canals. These provided for movement of goods.
  • Tariffs were placed on imported goods which helped to promote US manufacturing.

2 Battle Region/Battles during the War of 1812

  1. The Fight For Great Lakes- The Fight for the Great Lakes – The war started in July 1812, when General William Hull led the American army from Detroit into Canada. Hull was met by Tecumseh and his warriors. Fearing a massacre by the American Indians, Hull surrendered Detroit to a small British force in August. Another attempt by General Harrison was unsuccessful as well. Harrison decided that the Americans could make no headway in Canada as long as the British controlled Lake Erie
  2. US Invade Canada- Oliver Hazard Perry, commander of the Lake Erie naval forces, had his orders. He was to assemble a fleet and seize the lake from the British. In the bloody battle that followed, Perry and his ships defeated the British naval force. After the battle, Perry sent General Harrison the message “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”With Lake Erie in American hands, the British and their American Indian allies tried to pull back from the Detroit area. Harrison and his troops cut them off. In the fierce Battle of the Thames on October 5, the great leader Tecumseh was killed. The Americans also attacked the town of York (present-day Toronto, Canada) burning the parliament buildings. Canada remained unconquered, but by the end of 1813 the Americans had won some victories on land and at sea.