Decolonization of The World

Authors: Ryan Arif, Zach Dunn, Jonathan Simmons,Simon Seely

Indian Subcontinent

After the Indian National Congress, a mostly Hindu group, was formed in 1885 to gain more rights for Indians under British control, and then the Muslim League in 1906 to help the causes of Islamic Indians, it took years to build into an organized act against British control. In 1919, the Amritsar Massacre helped the movement.

In Amritsar,319 Indians, some Hindu and some Muslim, were killed by British General Dyer during a peaceful protest in a city park. They were speaking against the capture of two of their leaders who also were only protesting, had no weapons, and were surprised by the attack. Because the park had walls around it, there was no way to run from the attack. When news of the killing spread, Indians joined with the others to help.

During the 1920s, Mohandas Gandhi became the the groups most important leader and organized huge protests against British rule. Instead of fighting with weapons, Gandhi's followers had demonstrations and didn't help British governments. They wouldn't buy British things and wouldn't work for the British. Gandhi's teachings inspired Martin Luther King Jr.

At the same time Hindus and Muslims were fighting more. They worked together against the British, but they found it hard to get along with each other. Gandhi didn't want them to fight. In the 1920s Gandhi tried to get them to stop. Instead, the Muslim League created a Muslim country, Pakistan.

Independence Won: Nations Two

After World War 2, Britain let India become free, much like America. However, this independence was achieved through non-violent movements, like what Martin Luther King Jr. did here in the USA! In fact, MLK based much of his black equality movement off of Gandhi, the leader of the peaceful revolution of India. However, this peacefulness did not last long. Extreme Muslims, from the Pakistan area, and Hindus, from the India area, started killing each other! Gandhi wished for India to be a place where both Hindus and Muslims could live peacefully together, but Muhammad Ali Jinnah (No, not the boxer) wished to form a separate nation for Pakistan, as the area was predominantly Muslim. After enough killing, Britain let Pakistan be it's own nation, along with Bangladesh, another part of Pakistan. Now that Pakistan was it's own nation, half of a million people were killed as Hindus left Pakistan/Bangladesh to go to India, and as Muslims left India to go to Pakistan/Bangladesh. Within a year of this intense violence, Gandhi was assassinated by a follower of Hinduism who hated Gandhi for allowing this violence to happen. This changed nothing, as even today, these nations are still fighting, and both nations now have nuclear weapons.


After World War 2 African nations started to gain independence. South Africa made a congress for their mostly native population to go against the unfair British government that was ruling over the country. Other nations such as Algeria, who fought with France, had bitter wars in order to gain independence. Eventually 53 out of 54 nations created the African Union in 2001 to replace the Organization of African Unity or OAU. Even today former nations that have colonized Africa still want a part of it due to its Rich natural Resources.

Rwanda: Race Killings

The Hutu and the Tutsi's have never been friends, but what made them hate each other was the Tutsi being blamed for the killing of the Hutu leader. When this happened the Hutu killed 800,000 Tutsi, and many Hutu ran to another country where many of them died from being sick.

The Apartheid

(Apartheid - separation of the races)

In 1910, the Union of South Africa was formed from two British colonies & two Dutch Boer republics, and black folk were excluded from politics. In 1923, black people were segregated from white people in housing areas. In 1926, blacks were further segregated by not being allowed to work in places white people wanted for themselves. How greedy! In 1931 South Africa was free from Britain! Sadly, this didn't change the segregation. instead, the apartheid was created. The majority of the population was, by far, black, but were even further segregated by setting aside separate land for black people. Obviously, the black majority hated the way they were being treated, so they fought back. During the 1950s, Nelson Mandela lead the African National Congress to attempt to abolish apartheid. At first, peaceful protest, like with Gandhi, was encouraged, but after 67 peaceful protesters were massacred in Sharpeville, the African National Congress resorted to violence. Nelson Mandela was arrested, and eventually, in 1990, the apartheid crumbled with the government.

Israel: Balfour makes a mess

When Jews wanted to move back "home" to Israel, but could not because Muslims were living there at the time. Balfour solved the problem by writing a paper to allow the Jews a part of the land Muslims had. This was called a "mess" because is "messed" up the normal life "four" everyone that lived there, messed with the money, social life, and private lives of everyone.
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After the Industrial Revolution, the world needed oil to power everything. In the Middle East, 2/3rds of the worlds oil existed, so, of course, everyone wanted a piece of the pie. But, the Middle Eastern governments discovered just how much controlling oil would effect the world, so they created OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), and were able to effectively send the price of oil "through the roof". Tons of money went towards OPEC because of this, so the Middle Eastern nations sought to modernize and advance to become great world powers.