Course Standard 3.1, 3.2, and 4.1

By Delaney Smith

3.1- Explain Locard's Exchange Principle, Frye Standard, and Daubert Ruling.

1. Locard's Exchange Principle states that the perpetrator of a crime will bring something into the crime scene and leave with something from it, and that both can be used as forensic evidence.

2. Dr. Edmond Locard formulated the basic principle of forensic science as "Every contact leaves a trace."

3. Fragmentary or trace evidence is any type of material left at or taken from a crime scene.

4. Locard believed that no matter where a criminal goes or what a criminal does, all sorts of evidence will be left, including DNA, fingerprints, fibers, and more.

5. Locard was the director of the very first crime lab in Lyon, France.

6. To meet the Frye Standard, the evidence in question must be "generally accepted" by the scientific community.

7. The Frye Standard has three basic tests to determine it. The first test is Fundamental Scientific Principle or Discovery.

8. The second Frye test is the technique used for applying the fundamental scientific principle or discovery.

9. The 3rd Frye test is the technique's specific application on which the expert testimony is based.

10. The Frye v. United States decision set guidelines for determining the admissibility of scientific evidence into the courtroom.

11. The Daubert ruling means that if an "expert" in a field can't provide an explanation to certain evidence used in a crime that is universally accepted by the scientific community, they have to exclude the unqualified evidence.

12. The basic Daubert Rule is "reasoning or methodology underlying the testimony must be scientifically valid."

13. The Supreme Court's ruling on Daubert is crucial to the admissibility of expert testimony in that it provides a detailed framework to help the judge when determining the relevance and reliability upon hearing evidence.

14. Admissibility is determined by whether the theory or technique can be tested, whether the science has been offered for peer review, and where the rate of error is acceptable.

15. Admissibility is also determined by whether the method at issue enjoys widespread acceptance and whether the theory or technique follows standards.

3.2- Categorize the differing types of evidence, including testimonials and physical and individual, as well as class evidence.

1. One of the most common types of evidence during most trials is testimonial evidence.

2. Testimonial evidence consists of statements that are made in court by witnesses and that are offered as proof of the matter asserted, or of what is being discussed.

3. Testimonial evidence is given by an expert or authority in a particular field.

4. It differs from anecdotal evidence in that the evidence is almost always considered to be credible.

5. Physical evidence is defined as any object, impression, or body element that can be used to prove or disprove facts relating to an offense.

6. It is especially valuable because it often carries greater weight in court than evidence obtained through witnesses' statements.

7. Physical evidence is examined and analyzed by forensic scientists found at the scene.

8. Individual evidence is a material that can be related to a single source.

9. Individualization always involves a comparison.

10. Individual evidence can narrow an identity to a single person of thing.

11. Examples of individual evidence are DNA, fingerprints, handwriting, and more.

12. Class evidence is material that can be associated with a group of items that share properties or characteristics.

13. Class evidence can help narrow an identity to a group of persons or things.

14. Class evidence can be associated with a group of items that share properties or characteristics.

15. An example of class evidence is blue jeans.

4.1- Explain the process of performing an autopsy.

1. An autopsy is also known as post-mortem examination.

2. It is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a coupe by dissection or injury that may be present.

3. An autopsy is usually performed by a specialized medical doctor called a pathologist.

4. There are four main types of autopsies.

5. Medico-Legal autopsies seek to find the cause or manner of death.

6. Clinical or Pathological are performed to diagnose a particular disease or for research purpose.

7. Anatomical or academic autopsies are performed by students of anatomy for study purposes only.

8. Virtual or medical imaging autopsies are performed utilizing imaging technology only.

9. The first step of an autopsy is obtaining permission to perform the autopsy.

10. The body is then received at the hospital or medical examiner's office and the body is weighed and measured and pictures are taken.

11. The body cavity is then opened.

12. The organs are removed, weighed, and examined.

13. The head is then examined, and if needed the brain is removed, weighed, and examined.

14. Then notes are taken on what was found.

15. The organs are then tested, and the results are shared with the family or with whoever was in charge of the autopsy being done.

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