Penguin

Franz Bragas Period 2 5/16/16

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Habitat

The habitat of penguins range from Antarctica to the equator. All penguins live in the Southern hemisphere. Some penguins live on islands with beaches and others live in the extreme cold of Antarctica. Although some penguins live near the equator, all of them still need a body of water to live next to. Usually a cold body of water. Penguins spend a lot of their time in the water. The habitat for penguins is depleting and a huge reason for that is because of humans. Humans are notorious for polluting the water with oil, debris, and chemicals (Penguins World Habitat).

Movement

Although penguins are classified as birds, they cannot fly. They can look funny when they walk but don't underestimate them, they are some of the best swimmers in the world. They have a sleek body and wings that seem like they were smashed. The wings are amazing for swimming through the water (Emperor Penguins Evans). The feathers on the wings are waterproof so they keep dry skin while swimming (Emperor Penguin).
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Body Covering

Penguins have a thick coat that is waterproof that are formed by feathers. The penguins feathers are either grayish-blue or black. The front side of the penguins are white. Some penguins have yellow or orange feathers on their neck, breast, or head. And some other penguin species have stylish feathers on their heads. Red, bright purple, black, or orange are the colors that penguin's beaks can be. Their feet are different colors too, it can be pink, black, or pink on top and black on the bottom (Penguin World Book).
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Diet

Fish, squid, crustaceans is what penguins eat. Penguins dive into the water for food. Smaller penguins mostly eat krill. Krill are usually in giant groups, so they are an excellent source of food (Penguins - British Antarctica).

Reproduction

According to Penguins - British Antarctica "The total number of breeding pairs of penguins in the Antarctic region is estimated to be about 20 million." The emperor and king penguins usually lay one egg, but most other species usually lay two eggs. Penguins have to wait for a time where there are large krill numbers and when the sea-ice has broken away. When the chicks are old enough they gather in a creche which is watched by a few adults. After this happens, the parents are finally able to feed at sea (Penguins - British Antarctica).
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Adaptations

Penguin's feathers are waterproof to keep them warm and they are great for swimming (Penguins - British Antarctica). You may think the head does not look like it fits with the body, on land that may be true but it is perfect for swimming in the water. The wings or flippers of the penguins that are at their sides are shaped like small paddles that are perfect for swimming. According to Penguins World Anatomy they have flattened bones inside of them. The penguins feathers are very short on their wings or flippers so they don't get weighed down while swimming. (Penguins World Anatomy)
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Other Info

To keep the penguin's feathers waterproof and warm, they use oil from a gland at the base of the tail. The emperor penguin is the largest penguin at about 1.15 meters tall and weighing in at about 37 Kg. The Little Blue Penguin is the smallest penguin at about 40 cm tall and weighing in at 1.2 Kg. Penguins are also very active communicators. Penguins can create very unique sounds but they don't have very good hearing. But it is believed that penguins can pick up based only on the vibrations coming from the sounds around them. Although penguins may not have the best hearing, they have superb eyesight. They can see on land, in the water, during day, during night, you can throw any kind of weather at them and they can still see very well. Research shows that penguins can also see in color. Sense of smell is also believed to be a very strong sense in their arsenal. (Penguins World Facts)
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Work Cited

Works Cited

Barbara, Wienecke. “Penguin.” World Book Online. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. World Book Advanced. Web. 10 May 2016. <http://www.worldbookonline.com/advanced/article?id=ar421160#tab=homepage>.

Britannica. “Penguin.” SIRS Discoverer. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 11 May 2016. <http://discoverer.prod.sirs.com/discoweb/disco/do/article?urn=urn%3Asirs%3AUS%3BARTICLE%3BART%3B0000323858>.

“Emperor Penguin.” Emperor Penguin. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/birds/printouts/Emperorpenguin.shtml>.

“Penguins.” Penguins - British Antarctic Survey. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 May 2016. <https://www.bas.ac.uk/about/antarctica/wildlife/penguins/>.

Penguins Standing on Snow. N.d. Discovery Education Science. Web. 13 May 2016. <https://app.discoveryeducation.com/player/view/assetGuid/0b681d43-40cd-44aa-9368-e84889bfcd30?utm_source=DiscoveryEducation&utm_medium=Curated_Collection_Play_Asset&utm_campaign=Curated_Collections>.

Penguin Swimming. N.d. Discovery Education Science. Web. 12 May 2016. <https://app.discoveryeducation.com/search?Ntt=penguin+swimming>.

Sarah, Evans. “Emperor Penguins.” SIRS Discoverer. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 12 May 2016. <http://discoverer.prod.sirs.com/discoweb/disco/do/article?urn=urn%3Asirs%3AUS%3BARTICLE%3BART%3B0000296701>.