Acids and Bases

By: Justin Kraftchick


An acid is on a PH scale anything beneath 7 is an acid.

Acid explanation

In the model above the Acid or (Lumo) is always from 0-6.9. One acid example is Car batteries.

Acid pictures

Difference between a strong and weak acid


Strong acid is occurs closer to zero while weak acids occur closer to seven. An example of a strong acid is a car battery because it is zero. Another strong acid is a lemon. And another strong acid is a orange. White Vinegar is also an example of a weak acid. Tomatoes are also a weak acid. A banana is another weak acid.

Chemical and physical properties of acids

Physical Properties: Acids have a sour taste, and all acids are soluble in water.

Chemical Properties: reacts with metals, and reacts with alkali.

How you can tell if a substance is acidic.

found in fruits and vegetables, and will taste sour on the tongue.


A base is anything on a PH scale that is 7.1-14.
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Strong and weak base differences

A strong base is something like sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide which is fully ionic. You can think of the compound as being 100% split up into metal ions and hydroxide ions in solution.

Ammonia is a typical weak base. Ammonia itself obviously doesn't contain hydroxide ions, but it reacts with water to produce ammonium ions and hydroxide ions.

Strong and weak base examples

  • HCl (hydrochloric acid)
  • HNO3 (nitric acid)
  • H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) these three are strong bases.
  • CH3COOH (acetic acid)
  • HCOOH (formic acid)
  • HF (hydrofluoric acid) these three are a weak base.
  • Physical properties

    1. They have a bitter taste.
    2. They have slippery touch.
    3. They conduct electrically.
    4. It turns red litmus to blue.
    5. It turns colorless phenolphthalein to pink

    Chemical properties


    KOH + HCl è KCl + H2O

    NaOH + HCl è NaCl + H2O

    how to tell if a substance is a base

    taste bitter

    feels slippery

    Turn red litmus paper blue.

    Turn phenolphthalein pink.


    Products you get when a acid and a base react

    acid-base reaction is called neutralization reaction.
    it produces salt and water are produced.

    Real life example

    Salt and the ocean creates salt water. or pouring a packet of salt into a glass of fresh tap water.


    How do you measure the strength of an acid and a base.

    Litmus paper


    Acidic is 0-6.9

    Neutral is 7.0

    And basic is 7.1-14.0

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    What is an acid/base indicator

    An acid-base indicator is a weak acid or a weak base. The undissociated form of the indicator is a different color than the iogenic form of the indicator. An Indicator does not change color from pure acid to pure alkaline at specific hydrogen ion concentration, but rather, color change occurs over a range of hydrogen ion concentrations. This range is termed the color change interval. It is expressed as a pH range.

    two examples of a common product that can be used as a indicator

    baking soda and vanilla extract

    why do indicators change color

    they change due to the changes in PH

    Acid Rain

    how does acid rain form

    caused by a chemical reaction with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.

    Chemicals are besides water, and carbonic acid (from carbon dioxide dissolved in the rain droplets), the primary components of acid rain are sulfuric acid, which comes from sulfur dioxide derived from the burning of coal, and nitric acid, which from nitrogen emissions.

    damage done by acid rain

    Acid rain impacts several parts of the environment:
    Water: Acidic water affects the growth and health of fish and other aquatic life, by reducing the pH of the water and impacting the health and breeding success of the fish and aquatic invertebrates. It also dissolves metals out of sediments and rocks to increase the metals (e.g., lead) in the water. These can be taken up by the plants and contaminate the associated seeds or fruit.
    Land: Acid rain impacts crop growth and soil structure. It can affect the growth of plants as many plants have a specific soil pH for optimum growth. In addition it can leach nutrients out of the topsoil, into the groundwater and into the water table. The leaching of nutrients from the soil makes them unavailable to plant life. Acid precipitation can change the ionic balance in clayey soils, affecting their structure.
    Infrastructure: Acid rain can corrode metal structures and erode cement, limestone and marble buildings.
    Forest Ecology: Acid rain damages trees at high elevations. An acid rain damaged forest contains fewer environmental niches for wildlife.
    Public Health: The pollutants that cause acid rain -- sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides -- are inhaled and cause an increase in heart and lung conditions (and premature death).
    This list does not include secondary efffects like the reduction of predators' prey caused by the reduction of fish numbers.
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    where and why acid rain in the U.S. is the greatest

    Particularly high elevation forests of the Appalachian Mountains from Maine to Georgia that include areas such as the Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountain National Parks.


    make a device that can tell you when acid rain is coming