Acids and Bases
By: Justin Kraftchick
Car battery is acidic because of the materials it consists of.
Orange Juice is acidic because it comes from concentrate.
Lemon is acidic because it is how you make lemon juice which is an acid.
Difference between a strong and weak acid
How you can tell if a substance is acidic.
Strong and weak base differences
A strong base is something like sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide which is fully ionic. You can think of the compound as being 100% split up into metal ions and hydroxide ions in solution.
Ammonia is a typical weak base. Ammonia itself obviously doesn't contain hydroxide ions, but it reacts with water to produce ammonium ions and hydroxide ions.
Strong and weak base examples
- They have a bitter taste.
- They have slippery touch.
- They conduct electrically.
- It turns red litmus to blue.
- It turns colorless phenolphthalein to pink
BASE + ACID è SALT + WATER
KOH + HCl è KCl + H2O
NaOH + HCl è NaCl + H2O
how to tell if a substance is a base
Turn red litmus paper blue.
Turn phenolphthalein pink.
Products you get when a acid and a base react
it produces salt and water are produced.
Real life example
How do you measure the strength of an acid and a base.
Acidic is 0-6.9
Neutral is 7.0
And basic is 7.1-14.0
What is an acid/base indicator
two examples of a common product that can be used as a indicator
why do indicators change color
how does acid rain form
caused by a chemical reaction with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides.
Chemicals are besides water, and carbonic acid (from carbon dioxide dissolved in the rain droplets), the primary components of acid rain are sulfuric acid, which comes from sulfur dioxide derived from the burning of coal, and nitric acid, which from nitrogen emissions.
damage done by acid rain
Water: Acidic water affects the growth and health of fish and other aquatic life, by reducing the pH of the water and impacting the health and breeding success of the fish and aquatic invertebrates. It also dissolves metals out of sediments and rocks to increase the metals (e.g., lead) in the water. These can be taken up by the plants and contaminate the associated seeds or fruit.
Land: Acid rain impacts crop growth and soil structure. It can affect the growth of plants as many plants have a specific soil pH for optimum growth. In addition it can leach nutrients out of the topsoil, into the groundwater and into the water table. The leaching of nutrients from the soil makes them unavailable to plant life. Acid precipitation can change the ionic balance in clayey soils, affecting their structure.
Infrastructure: Acid rain can corrode metal structures and erode cement, limestone and marble buildings.
Forest Ecology: Acid rain damages trees at high elevations. An acid rain damaged forest contains fewer environmental niches for wildlife.
Public Health: The pollutants that cause acid rain -- sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides -- are inhaled and cause an increase in heart and lung conditions (and premature death).
This list does not include secondary efffects like the reduction of predators' prey caused by the reduction of fish numbers.