By Jessie Horovitz


Halacha is translated into 'Jewish Law'

These set of laws give movement, direction and progress, it is a path to follow in life.


There are two different attitudes towards the giving of the laws on Mount Sinai.


Orthodox Jews believe that the Torah is written by god and god only. they believe that since the laws are from god, they are immutable and binding. This means that they are unchangeable. they have to be obeyed by how they are written.


Reform Jews believe that the Torah is not necessarily written by god but by the people. this is the key idea about reform Jews. Reform Jews don't regard these laws are authoritative and binding but flexible.

The Written Law

The written law is the Torah and Tanach. Within this, there is the 5 books of Moses, Chumash and Pentateuch, as well as Nevi'im, which talks about the prphets and Ketuvim which speaks about the writings/megillot. There are also Parashot which are portions of the torah which are read each week that tell a story. All of this together make up the Tanach.

The oral law

The oral law is a mixture between, the Mishna, Gemara, Talmud yerushalmi, Talmud bavli, midrash, Rashi, Tosafot, Rambam - Mishneh Torah, Yosef Karo - Shulchan Arch, and Responsa.


The Mishna is the first written recording of the oral torah of the jewish people. the Mishna was written around 200CE by Rabbi's who wanted to secure the Jewish oral law. the Mishna consists of six sedarim, which each contain 7-12 masechtot, which are each divided into michnayot.


The Gemara is the component of the Talmud that has rabbinical analysis of and the commentary of the Mishna. After the Mishna was created, the work was studied very closely from generation to generation. all of this discussion was written down in a series of books which became the Gemara, which when combined with the mishna became the talmud.


"Mishna and Gemara together make the Talmud" - Ms Habers Song

this contains both the legal ruling and back and forth discussions dissecting these rulings. the community in israel created a talmud in the 3rd century called the Jerusalem Talmud. There is another talmud called the Babylonian talmud which was created over 200 years after the jerusalem talmud. This talmud is universally accepted as authoritative.


Rashi was a commentator during the middle ages. he was born in france and lived from 1040 to 1105 CE. he was a amazing scholar and studied with some incredible people. Rashi commentated on Tanach, talmud and Gemara to name a few. his commentary on the talmud was the most important. it was the most read, and there are over 200 commentaries on his commentary of the talmud. After Rashi's death students kept discussing Rashi's commentaries of the talmud. these commentaries we compiled and called Tosafot. one of the most famous Tosafists was Rashi grandson, Rabbenu Tam.

Mishneh Torah - Rambam

The Mishneh Torah is a code of jewish religious law. this is authorised by Rambam. (Maimonides or Rabbi Moshe Ben Maimon)Rambam was one of history's important rabbis. the Mishneh torah was written between 1170 and 1180 VE while Rambam was living in egypt. The Mishneh Torah consists of 14 books subdivided into sections, chapters and prargraphs. it details all of the jewish observance including laws that are only applicable when the temple is in existence.

Shulchan Aruch - Yosef Karo

The Shulchan Aruch is also a book of the codes of Jewish Law. It is the most authoritative legal code according to judaism. it was written by Yosef Karo in 1563. Shulchan Aruch is created by the areas of halacha that are applicable to us today. this book gives ruling followed by the Ashkenazi Jews.


Responsa is translated into "answers". Responsa consists of written decisions and rulings given by scholars. these writings asnwer and respond to questions we need to address.

Delta Rhythm Boys - Dry Bones


The Torah' s connected to the Mishna

And the Mishna's connected to the Gemara

·Mishna and Gemara together make the Talmud

And the Talmud is connected to Rashi

And Rashi's connected to the Tosafot

And Tosafot are connected to Mishneh Torah

·Mishneh Torah's connected to Shulchan Aruch

And then what follows is Responsa