Types of Mining and Fracking

Ian Murphy

Surface

Soil and rock overlying the mineral deposit are removed. There are three types of surface mining strip, open pit, and mountain top removal.

Subsurface

The overlying rocks and soil are left in place, and the mineral is removed through shafts and tunnels. The three types are slope, drift, shaft

Fracking

The process of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks to release natural gas inside. Fracking contaminating the groundwater, puts methane pollution and impacts climate change and air pollution, and has exposure to toxic chemicals.