Canada in the year 2035


The purpose of this assignent is to determine if Canada will be the greatest country to live in 2035 by using all knowledge from previous units and apply the pros and cons that may shape the future.

Unit One: Changing Populations

Will Canada be the most desired destination for immigration?

The future immigration of Canada may continue to decrease due to business of immigration competition, when other countries such as the US, UK and Australia are offering the same employment opportunities Canada isn't as intriguing. Also when people immigrate to Canada some can't get hired in jobs which they have skills in because they're new to the country and they have to start slower which may become a financial issue. Since most of Canada's population is Immigrants we need immigrants to keep the population sustainable.

How will Canada's population look?

According to the Canadian Statistics the population of Canada is currently estimated to be 35.16 million and is estimated to reach 40.0 million 20 years from now. Presently, Canada's population is declining. Birth rate continues to decrease (close to death rate) because parents limit family size due to the developed lifestyle. When we look at developing lifestyles we see that the populations are the opposite. When living in poverty, families are unsure if their children will even survive which is why they have such a high birth rate. Although, in Canada families know that their children will most likely make it to adulthood which is why most of the young adult population decide to have families later in life and focus on their education & career now. Also, the natural increase has declined due to falling fertility rate & population aging. By 2035, it is estimated that only one fifth of the population growth is projected to come from natural increase.

FN, M & I population

The Canadian Stats state that the First Nations make up 69.9%. the Metis 25.7% and the Inuits 0.7 of the population of Canada. In the future most of the FNMI population will be in the urban centers due to poverty, more jobs opportunities, healthcare and government.
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Unit Two: Interactions in the Physical Environment

Why does Canada have the climate it does?

Canada has 4 distinct seasons, Autumn, Spring, Summer & Winter. Summer Temperatures can reach to a high of 35 degrees while in the Winter can be a low of -25 degrees.

L atitude- The wide range in latitude, most northerly part is Alberta, Nunavut with the temperature of -18 degrees with the latitude of 38 degrees N. Yellowknife halfway between them at 62 degrees N. Pelee Island in Lake Erie at 41 degrees N latitude.

O cean Currents- On the west coast the warm North Pacific currents heats the cool, moist air passes over it. Which is why the coastal regions of British Columbia has a milder climate. The Labrador current cools the air of coastal locations in Labrador and Newfoundland.

W ind & Air Masses- The air mass that's over the Gulf of Mexico will be warm and moist, while the one over the Pacific Ocean will be moist but cold.

E levation- the lowest elevation is at any point along its maritime coast, which are all provinces and territories except Alberta and Saskatchewan because they have a convectional coast.

R elief- Mountain barriers create relief precipitation. Cool air descends on the more protected slope of a mountain range, it then becomes warmer. More evaporation than condensation takes places; as it descends as the air descends cloud forms and precipitation decreased happens in drier climate referred to as "rain shadow".

N ear Water- The large bodies of water store heat in warm periods and release in it cold periods. The areas near water are usually have most air which results in a maritime climate and dry air in the air is most likely to have a continental climate.

Interior Plains

The Interior Plains are located in North America. They stretch from the Arctic ocean to the gulf of Mexico. 1300 km wide at south and 275 km wide at the North. The plains in Canada are located in the parts of Northwest Territories, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The plains are made up of rolling hills, deep wide river valleys and land slopes down from west to east. Most of Canada's oil and gas resources come from Alberta & Saskatchewan. The plains have good ,fertile soil to grow healthy crops (mostly wheat). Where the climate is too dry or too warm for crops, and cattle are raised for their meat. Since the Interior Plains were covered by shallow inland seas in the past, sediments from the Canadian Shield and The Rockies flowed to these seas and over the years compressed into Sedimentary Rocks.

Western Cordillera

The Western Cordillera is also located in North America. In Canada they can be found in the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta & Yukon. This region has a young, rugged mountain range and was created by the plates colliding creating and uplift which resulted in the mountains in the Western Cordillera region. This region is known for the minerals which is one of Canada's top resources; and also for the recreational activities and logging.

Vegetation Zones

Canada has many several vegetation zones; Deciduous forests, Mixed Wood Forests, Boreal & Taiga Forests, Cordilleras, Tundra and the West Coast Forests. The Tundra is mostly northerly vegetation region in Canada, few trees grow due to the cold climate; most is permafrost. Boreal and Tiaga are the largest vegetation regions in Canada. Coniferous trees grow there due to the long growing season and more precipitation than the tundra. The Mixed Forest is in the eastern part of Canada, it is made up of Deciduous and Coniferous trees; which are good resources for lumber. There is also good, fertile soil for farming. Grasslands are in the southern region of Canada which would be in the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan & Alberta. The climate is too dry for species of trees to survive, although the land is used for grazing animals. In the Cordillera region there is a wide range of temperatures, rainfalls, soils and elevation throughout.

How will climate change alter Canada's physical environment?

Climate change can alter the environment in several ways but the most impact would be the greenhouse emissions. The greenhouse emissions is the release of CO2 into the atmosphere which increases global warming. More changes include increased severe weather and unbalance weather patterns. Having unbalanced weather patterns can result in dry areas receive less precipitation and wet areas receive less precipitation and also sea levels rising as glaciers melt.

Unit Three: Managing Canada's Resources & Industries

Canada's most important resources

Canada's trade is mostly influenced by our primary industries. Which would be Mineral fuels and oils, vehicles and parts & mechanical machinery and equipment. Secondary industry commodities include manufacturing of vehicles, air crafts and plastics. Natural resources come from different provinces, 600 projects are valued at $650 billion. Oil, The Alberta Oil Sands, Forestry from British Columbia/ Northern Ontario, Uranium from Saskatchewan, Mining from Ontario and Hydro power from Quebec.

How will Canada manage these resources in a sustainable resource?

To manage these resources Canada has to develop and practice sustainable yield management, which is knowing the amount of a resource that can be harvested without depleting. This should ensure continued supply by allowing time to reproduce or replenish. When over consumption takes place we harm our environment more than just build our economy, and in order to be sustainable we need to have a balance in our resources as a country. Currently we don't have a balance that we should to prosper, building our economy is increasing while taking care of our environment isn't as focused on. As a country we all need to learn and practice eco-friendly actions, so that we see the importance of our resources and how we take advantage of them to build the economy.


Canada's top trading partners are the US (74%), China (4.3%) and the UK (4.1&). We are connected to the world through globalization and as well as NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement). Globalization is the exchange of goods, services and culture between multiple nations. Companies now operate in many in many countries without restriction. Globalization include transnational corporations which are companies that go beyond the boarder and save money with cheap labour; which results in sweatshops, poor working conditions and pay below minimum wage to the workers. Although, Globalization does have it's pros and cons. Some positives are the products are cheaper when trading, there are worldwide job opportunities, higher profits towards us which results in a better economy in nations-better competition, and culture exchange. Some negatives would be wage cuts, companies exploit cheap labour, sweatshop workers with poor working conditions, no justice for all, tariffs and a lot of environmental damage.

Unit Four: Liveable Communities

What issues are Canadian cities facing?

Some issues that Canadians are facing are financial, health and the areas of lifestyle they're living in. Living in Canada there are places that are urban, suburban and rural. Each place has something that citizen’s value in their life, which determines where they live. Those who like to be close to stores and etc., with many job opportunities would like to live in an urban place; while those who like a lot of open space and enjoy nature would like to live in a rural place. Urban and rural areas both have their pros and cons, and combining the two created the ‘suburbs’. Although currently more citizens are moving to the urban areas for more job opportunities, which created Urban Sprawl. Patters of urban sprawl are low density homes in subdivisions, growing farther from city center, single house on a large lot, far from work, shopping & services.

Urban Sprawl in 2035

Urban Sprawl is the encroachment of an urban center into the surrounding rural or farm land on the edge of a city. There is low density and single family homes spread over large areas. The four issues of Urban Sprawl are Transportation, Farm Land Use, Health Costs and Infrastructure needs. Transportation, there is pollution, commute times and traffic congestion. (82% of the population drives). Farm Land Use- Since 1989, the GTA has developed 128,000 acres of farm land, and it is estimated that 260,000 acres will be used by 2021. (92% of this land is Ontario's best farm land). Some Infrastructure issues are high cor of providing and maintaining roads, hard to provide public transit to low density areas, difficult to provide energy and water and longer response times for fire, police & ambulance. In the future


In conclusion, Canada is facing many issues right now that if we don't control soon can effect the sustainability of the country. Population's are decreasing and there is a lot of over consumption. We need to learn how to protect our environment, build our economy, better our health and find a balance between these requirements so that we can prosper for future generations.