Classifying The Colonies
Maria Garcia 5th
- The first permanent British North American colony, founded in 1607 on Chesapeake Bay
- Founded by a joint stock company called The Virginia Company (the foundation of the modern day stock market).
- Many of the 144 first settlers (all men) died from malaria and starvation, settlers were also not used to this life style and wasted their time looking for gold instead of fishing and hunting.
- Went through a "Starving Time" where many settlers died and life expectancy was only 40 years, it was also one of the few times where cannibalism has been recorded in the Unites States.
- 1610-1614 was the first Anglo-Powhatan war, in which the Indians raided villages, burned houses, and burned corn fields.
- In 1612 John Rolfe introduced the cash crop, tobbaco, which helped Jamestowns economy prosper.
- In 1619 The House of Burgesses was formed which is the first representative government in British America and the foundation for the House of Representatives and Senate.
- James I grew frustrated of Virginia and in 1624 took away the Virginia Company's charter making Virginia an official royal colony.
- The Peace Treaty of 1646 separated English and Indian settlements and removed the Powhatan's from their land.
- Institutionalized the plantation economy and slavery.
- Created in 1634 by Lord Baltimore after he was granted a royal charter, Maryland is a proprietary colony.
- Many Catholics came to Maryland because Lord Baltimore promised them large amounts of land which cause conflict with the Protestants who where receiving small amount of land.
- It was a safe haven for Catholics and Christians, in the Treaty of 1649 toleration of all Christians was declared but any other religion that did not acknowledge the divinity of Jesus was ordered death.
- Located North of Jamestown, also on Chesapeake Bay which resulted in similar attributes between the two colonies.
- In 1689 the Protestant Association overcame the Calvert government and Maryland became a royal colony.
- Grew tobacco which brought wealth and growth.
- Attempted to establish free schools but ultimately only founded one called King William's School now known as St. Johns College in Annapolis. In 1728 a law was passed that said that the schoolmaster had to teach as many poor children as the local board determined.
- Baltimore became the second largest port exporting a lot of their farming products.
- Alike Jamestown, Maryland also used indentured slaves and later switched to African American slaves which became the main work force and eventually outnumbered white slaves.
- The settlers befriended the Indians, exchanging land and crops.
- Founded by Puritans and Separatists in 1620 for religious freedom.
- The economy relied heavily on lumber, fur and fish as there was a large supply of it.
- Most well known Separatist where the Pilgrims who sailed on the Mayflower in 1620 and created the Mayflower Compact which was the first governing document of Plymouth Rock.
- In 1621 the Pilgrims celebrated the first Thanksgiving with the Native Americans after a harsh winter.
- Their economic success came mainly from their strong trade with England and the West Indies.
- The governance was a small group of men who where strongly influenced by Puritan leaders, only freemen that had been admitted to the church could be part of the electorate.
- Bad soil and cold winters made it extremely hard to farm and grow crops.
- The Cambridge Agreement of 1629 was a pledge made by Puritan stock holders of the Massachusetts Bay Co. to come to New England if the colonys government could be transferred there.
- John Winthrop, a Puritan, arrived in 1630 and served as a governor for 12 of the colonys first 20 years, his writing and visions commanded the colonial development
- In 1652 Massachusetts Bay established a mint after a shortage of hard currency.
- Founded in 1733 by James Oglethorpe, it was the last of the 13 colonies founded.
- Purpose of Georgias creation is to serve as a buffer from Spanish Florida for the other colonies.
- Georgia was popular among debtors and prisoners who went there to start a new life.
- At first the colony was growing very slowly because Oglethorpe only allowed 50 acres per settler and alcohol was not allowed but once he changed the rules the colony grew much faster.
- Settlers where not very happy with the military type rules set in Georgia although the colony was prospering.
- The economy was driven through the exportation of silk and wine.
- In 1733 Oglethorpe and a group of people formed the city of Savannah which included a diverse community with religious freedom for all, except Catholics.
- Originally Georgia did not want slaves but in 1752 plantations and slavery where introduced when it became a royal colony.
- Georgia has coastal weather which makes it easier to farm and grow crops such as tobacco, indigo and rice.
- Only colony to be reliant on the Parliaments annual subsides.
- Found in 1681 by William Penn in search for religious freedom for the Quakers (Pacifist).
- In 1682 the colonial government was established, it was made up of a governor, proprietor and 72 member council and a larger general council.
- In 1683 The Charter of Privileges was produced this gave religious freedom to all monotheist and demanded fair dealing with Native Americans.
- In 1719 the first newspaper was printed in Philadelphia.
- In 1751 Pennsylvania Hospital, the first hospital in the British American colonies, and The Academy and College of Philadelphia opened.
- William Penn started a system of buying land from the Indians which cause peaceful interaction between the settlers and Indians.
- Owing to the Quakers affiliation with peace and passive resistance Pennsylvania did not have an army.
- Pennsylvania has abundant water bodies and extremely fertile soil which worked in favor of their farming, mainly grains, this enriched their economy.
- The colony was named after William Penns father and the Latin word sylvania which means forrest.
- The Delaware River which runs between Delaware and Pennsylvania became very important for trade and it also provided space for more settlements.