History of Classification


4th century BC (384 to322 BC) ARISTOTLE

*Greek philosopher
*divided organisms into 2 groups - plants and animals
*divided animals into blood and bloodless
*also divided animals into 3 groups according to how they moved - walking, flying, or swimming (land, air, or water)
*his system was used into the 1600's

Andrea Caesalpino (1519–1603)

Proposed the first methodical arrangement of plants. On the basis of the structure of trunk and frunktification he divided plants into fifteen "higher genera".

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Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656–1708)

Introduced an even more sophisticated hierarchy of class, section, genus, and species. He was the first to use consistently the uniformly composed species names that consisted of a generic name and a many-worded diagnostic phrase differentia specifica. Unlike Rivinus, he used differentiae with all species of polytypic genera.

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  • Swedish scientist
  • classified plants and animals according to similarities in form
  • divided living things into one of two "kingdoms" -
    • plant and animal kingdoms
    • divided each of the kingdoms into smaller groups called "genera" (plural of "genus")
    • divided each genera into smaller groups called "species"

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Charles Darwin 1809-1882

He provided conclusive evidence that evolution of life forms has occurred. In addition, he proposed natural selection as the mechanism responsible for these changes.



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