The Nile's Impact

The longest river in the world

Transportation and Trade

The Nile River was Ancient Egypt's "highway". The Nile flowed north, so northbound ships could ride the current. Southbound ships had big sails and oars to fight the current. Although, the first ships were just bundles of reed of papyrus reeds tied together. Eventually, wood replaced reeds. Wooden barges carried limestone across the river to temples and pyramids. Egyptians also traded grains, gold, papyrus, linen, and cattle for animal skins, ivory tusks, ebony, ostrich feathers, frankincense, silver, oil, cedar, horses, copper, African slaves, and more. The Nile controlled transportation and trade of Ancient Egypt for a long time and continues to impact Egypt today.

Farming and Calendars

Ancient Egypt's calendar was based on their farming schedule. Unlike what we have in America, the Egyptians had three seasons in their year. The first one was Inundation, which was when the Nile flooded. The next was Emergence, when Ancient Egyptians planted and grew crops. Lastly, there was harvest, where they gathered (or harvested) the crops. Rains in Africa caused the Nile to flood and leave a layer of fertile soil called silt behind. Ancient Egyptians also dug irrigation ditches and canals to water crops farther away from the Nile. They planted many crops including barley, flax, and wheat. Ancient Egyptians relied on the Nile to water their crops and form their calendar.


Geographical Facts

  • Longest river in the world
  • Flows south to north
  • The blue Nile and white Nile come together to form the Nile
  • Out of six cataracts in the Nile, only two of them are in Ancient Egypt
  • the Nile delta comes from the Mediterranean Sea


Daily Life

  • Made homes out of mud bricks from the Nile
  • Fish from the Nile was their main protein source
  • Had pools filled with fish and lotuses to use and cool off in
  • Used papyrus (grows by the Nile) for baskets, rope, sandals, and paper
  • Drank water from the Nile
  • Bathed in the Nile
  • ate geese and ducks that swam on the Nile
  • had cups made of clay from the Nile to drink water (from the Nile), beer, and wine