Reading Work Sample Final Project
Dogs were the first animals tamed by people. About 10,000 years ago, prehistoric people used dogs as watchdogs. Over time, people trained them to help hunt deer and other wild animals and to herd sheep and cattle.
Today, many people keep dogs as pets. Dogs are loyal and friendly companions. They can also be trained to track criminals, sniff out hidden explosives and drugs, rescue accident victims, and guide blind people. Dogs take part in races, perform in circuses, and sometimes even star in movies and TV shows.
Kinds of dogs
PictureRottweiler with pups
There are many different kinds, or breeds, of dogs. Some of these dogs look like wolves, their relatives from long ago. The German shepherd is a good example. But most dogs look nothing like wolves. Toy dogs, such as the pug or Pekingese, are small dogs. They are raised to be house pets.
The smallest dog is thechihuahua <<chee WAH wah>>. Most chihuahuas are about 5 inches (13 centimeters) tall at the shoulder and weigh from 1 to 6 pounds (0.5 to 2.7 kilograms). The tallest dogs are the Irish wolfhound and the Great Dane. Both can be 39 inches (99 centimeters) tall at the shoulder. The St. Bernard, one of the heaviest dogs, weighs up to 200 pounds (90 kilograms).
Purebred and mixed-breed dogs
There are more than 300 kinds of purebred dogs. A purebred dog is a dog whose father and mother belong to the same breed. People who sell purebred dogs keep records of each dog's pedigree—its parents and grandparents.
Many dogs are not purebred. They are mixed-breed dogs, sometimes called mutts or mongrels. Their parents were dogs of different breeds or of mixed breeds. Mutts come in every size, shape, and color. They are often healthier and stronger than purebred dogs.
How a puppy grows
PictureDog chasing its tail
A female dog may give birth to 1 to 10 puppies at a time. Small dogs usually have fewer puppies at one time. Puppies are blind and helpless at birth. Their eyes open about 10 to 15 days later. They can walk when they are 2 to 3 weeks old. They begin to bark and wag their tails then, too. Puppies feed on only their mother's milk for the first 3 weeks and then begin to eat solid food, too. When they are 6 weeks old, they no longer need their mother's milk. The best time to adopt a puppy is when it is 6 to 8 weeks old.
Keeping a pet dog
A dog needs love and care all its life. A puppy must be trained to be clean and obedient. It learns by being praised for doing the right thing at the right time and in the right place.
A dog enjoys company and loves to play. It needs exercise to stay healthy. In many cities, dogs must be kept on a leash by law. A dog running free may cause a traffic accident, fight other dogs, bite people, or hurt other animals.
PictureVeterinarian examining a puppy
Dogs get sick sometimes. A pet dog should be taken to the veterinarian <<veht uhr uh NAIR ee uhn>> for checkups. A veterinarian is a doctor that takes care of animals. Dogs need shots to prevent common dog diseases.
Grooming, feeding, sleeping
Dogs with short hair need very little brushing. Long-haired dogs need more brushing, especially if they roam the countryside. Brushing gets fleas and ticks out of the dog's fur. When bathing a dog, use a shampoo for dogs that does not take away the natural oils in its fur.
A puppy needs four meals a day until it is about 3 months old. It needs three meals a day until it is 6 months old and then two meals a day until it is fully grown. Adult dogs need only one meal of dry or canned food a day. However, many dogs prefer two smaller meals—one in the morning and one at night. Avoid feeding your dog too much meat or table scraps. And give your dog plenty of fresh, clean water to drink. Many dogs enjoy chewing rawhide strips or special chew toys.
Most dogs will sleep happily in a box or basket. Line it with clean shredded paper, or washable towels or blankets. A dog that sleeps outdoors needs a warm, dry shelter, such as a garage, barn, or a specially made doghouse.
Interesting facts about dogs
Small dogs usually live longer than big dogs. A toy poodle or pug can live up to 15 years, but a Great Dane or St. Bernard is old at 8 or 9. The oldest dog on record was an Australian cattle dog that lived to be 29 years and 5 months old.
When a dog is hot, it does not sweat like humans do. It pants. Its tongue hangs out of its mouth. The wet saliva on the tongue and mouth evaporates in the warm air. It forms a kind of moist air that helps the dog to feel cooler.
Most dogs dig holes. This is something their wild relations did long ago. They hid leftover food by burying it to eat later. That's why a pet dog sometimes buries things.
Dogs smell and hear better than people can. Some dogs can follow scent trails that are four days old. A dog can hear sounds too high for human ears to pick up. A dog's eyes see movement well, but not colors. Most things look gray, and perhaps blue, to a dog.
To a dog, its owner's house and yard is its territory. Many dogs will bark as a warning if a stranger comes too near. But a bark can be a friendly greeting, too.
Fetzer, S. (1023). Dogs. Worl bookw, retrieved from http://www.worldbook.com
1. How can your describe dogs behavior?
2. What is the main idea of the text?
1. How would you explain dogs lives?
2. Why do you think dogs have different food from humans?
1. What is the most important role of being a dog?
2. What would you suggest when having a dog?
1. As puppies they don't really like rules, but as adults they are pretty well trained.
2. The way dogs behave and mature.
1. They have pretty good lives unless are abused or wild.
2. Because they digest foods differently.
1. To listen to owners and go to the bathroom in proper places.
2. To feed them and bathe them monthly.