Chemistry Definitions

By: Adriene Miller

Acid


a chemical substance that neutralizes alkalis, dissolves some metals, and turns litmus red; typically, a corrosive or sour-tasting liquid of this kind

Base

a substance capable of reacting with an acid to form a salt and water, or (more broadly) of accepting or neutralizing hydrogen ions

Colligative

of or relating to the binding together of molecules
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Colloid

a homogeneous, noncrystalline substance consisting of large molecules or ultramicroscopic particles of one substance dispersed through a second substance. Colloids include gels, sols, and emulsions; the particles do not settle and cannot be separated out by ordinary filtering or centrifuging like those in a suspension
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Concentration

the relative amount of a given substance contained within a solution or in a particular volume of space; the amount of solute per unit volume of solution
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Dilation

the action of making a liquid more dilute
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Immiscible

(of liquids) not forming a homogeneous mixture when added together.
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Miscible

(of liquids) forming a homogeneous mixture when added together.
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Molarity

the number of moles of solute per liter of solution.
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Osmosis

a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one, thus equalizing the concentrations on each side of the membrane.
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Precipitation

the action or process of precipitating a substance from a solution
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Saturation

holding as much water or moisture as can be absorbed; thoroughly soaked.

(of an organic molecule) containing the greatest possible number of hydrogen atoms, and so having no carbon–carbon double or triple bonds

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Soluable

(of a substance) able to be dissolved, especially in water.

(of a problem) able to be solved.

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Solute

the minor component in a solution, dissolved in the solvent.

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Solution

a means of solving a problem or dealing with a difficult situation

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Solvent

able to dissolve other substances.

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Supersaturated

increase the concentration of (a solution) beyond saturation point
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Suspension

a mixture in which particles are dispersed throughout the bulk of a fluid

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Unsaturated

(of organic molecules) having carbon–carbon double or triple bonds and therefore not containing the greatest possible number of hydrogen atoms for the number of carbons
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