Component Of Fitness

Lewis Sanderson

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What is agility?

The ability to move and change direction quickly, precisely and under control.

Why is agility needed in sports?

i.e Football, Keeping the ball under control, and working with your team to avoid your opponents from getting the ball off you whilst you're in possession of the ball.

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What is Co-Ordination?

The ability to move two or more body parts at the same time efficiently and accurately in a smooth motion.

Why is Co-Ordination needed in sports?

i.e. Rounder's, You have to look at the ball effectively which will enable you to hit the ball; and to run at the same time of hitting the ball. Spot on force to give yourself time to make it to the first, second, or third or even a whole run.

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Muscular Strength

What is muscular strength?

The amount of force that can be generated by a muscle when contracting, (kg/n).

Why is muscular strength needed in sports?

i.e. Boxing, you'll need explosive strength to make one quick punch. (Dynamic strength).

Tennis or Volleyball, will you need explosive strength to smash a quick serve.

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Aerobic Endurance

What is aerobic endurance?

The ability for the heart and lungs to work effectively over long periods of time.

Why is aerobic endurance needed in sports?

i.e. Mo Farah, is a long distance runner. He needs to have amounts of oxygen flowing throughout his body. To give him energy, also to make his heart and lungs work properly when running long distances.

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What is balance?

Balance is the ability to keep the body stable, when moving or still. By keeping the centre of gravity over the base of support.

Why is balance needed in sports?

i.e. Rugby, When you're tackled and not actually wanting to fall to the ground, initially to lose the ball.

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Body COmposition

What is body composition?

In brief of what your body is made up of

Why is body composition needed in sports?

i.e. Long distance runner, would be ectomorph; Mo Farah running long distances and not getting fatigue!

Sprinter, would be mesomorph; Usain Bolt, he'll need strong muscles in his legs to also take longer strides.

Sumo wrestler, would be endomorph, to basically take your opponents down, you've got fat muscle to fight against your opponents.

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What is flexibility?

The range of movement around a joint.

Why is flexibility needed in sports?

To be-able to stretch your muscle parts of your body below the waist, i.e. in football; to increase the power behind the ball to make it go further.

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Muscular Endurance

What is muscular endurance?

The ability of the muscle to exert a force over a long periods of time.

Why is muscular endurance needed in sports?

Muscles will carry on contracting for long periods of time. i.e. footballers, will run and they do not want to pull a muscle for example a hamstring, and to not get fatigue (tired).

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What is power?

A combination of strength and speed.

Why is power needed in sports?

i.e. Discus/shot put, Making one short sharp quick burst.

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Reaction Time

What is reaction time?

The time it takes to respond to a stimulus.

Why is reaction time needed in sports?

i.e. 100 metre sprint, then your reaction times have to be really spot on, and efficiently accurate!

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What is speed?

How long it takes an individual, or an object to travel a certain distance.

Why is speed needed in sports?

i.e. Football, so a player can run down the line to make a quick burst.

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Borg RPE Scale

What is the Borg RPE Scale?

This is designed to give you an average heart rate, for example; your rate is how hard your exercise was, e.g. 10 you then times that number by 10. This should then give you a rough estimate of your average heart rate!

What Are My Heart Rate Training Zones?
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Frequency - The number of times an exercise is undertaken. i.e. 30 mins x3 (times) a week. For a normal healthy lifestyle.

Intensity - How hard the exercise is. This must be 60-85% for 20 mins.

Time - How long the exercise lasts, i.e. 15 mins on the treadmill. Then next training session; double the training period to 30 mins.

Type - What is the exercise? i.e. changing the exercise you've been doing.

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Specificity - Are the exercises specific to that person (To their sport as well).

Progression - Were you get better (Fitter/Improving).

Overload - FITT Principle

Reversibility - Progress is lost when we stop training, we lose progress twice as fast as what we've earned it.

VariaTion - Vary the practice (Exercise) that you do, change the exercises that they're doing; your body will get bored of training on the same area, vary what exercises and training methods that you do.

3 Types Of Warming up

Pulse Raiser - It is the first part of a warm up and can be any activity which can be used to gradually increases the heart rate.

Stretch - It could include static or dynamic stretches.

Static; To stretch muscles while the body is at rest. It is composed to various techniques that gradually lengthen a muscle.

Dynamic; Dynamic stretching and mobility exercises, which could form part of the warm up program in your training session.

Mobilisation - Is a manual therapy intervention, a type of passive movement of a skeletal joint


Definition - Plyometrics is a method of training muscle elastic strength and explosiveness to enhance athletic performance.

Plyometrics - Is all about, exercises that are based around having muscles exert maximum force in short intervals. Increasing both power and speed.

Examples Of Exercises -

Squat Jumps

Alternate leg bounding

Power skipping

Circuit Training

Definition - Circuit training, is a form of body conditioning or resistance training using high-intensity aerobics.

Circuit training - Exercises that once you've completed one stage, you move onto the next circuit (stage). Performing to your maximum ability at each circuit.

Examples Of Exercises -

Upper body - Squat ups/ bench lift

Lower body - Squat jumps/ Step ups

Total body - Skipping/ Treadmills

Free Weights

Definition - Free weights include dumbbells, barbells, medicine balls, sandbells, and kettle bells.

Free weights - Some free weight exercises can be performed while sitting or lying on an exercise ball. This makes it extremely difficult to maintain proper form, thus preventing the use of heavier weight, severely limiting any long-term gains in strength.

Examples Of Exercises -

Push/Pull workout.

Aerobic Training

Continuous Training - Continuous training is a type of physical training that involves activity without rest intervals It is divided into three parts (1) slow continuous running, (2) fast continuous training, (3) variable pace.

Interval Training - Is physical training consisting of alternating periods of high- and low-intensity activity.

Fartlek Training - Is a training method that blends continuous training with interval training. Fartlek runs are a very simple form of a long distance run. Fartlek training is simply defined as periods of fast running mixed with periods of slower running.

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Speed Training

Speed training is a blend or combination of maximum speed, elastic strength and speed endurance.