Space Travel

by Katie & Emma

The first man in space


  1. Yuri Gagarin



  2. Yuri Gagarin: First Man in Space. On 12 April 1961, Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first human to travel into space when he launched into orbit on the Vostok 3KA-3 spacecraft (Vostok 1).Jul 24, 2012

This happened

  1. Yuri Gagarin: First Man in Space. On 12 April 1961, Russian cosmonautYuri Gagarin became the first human to travel into space when he launched into orbit on the Vostok 3KA-3 spacecraft (Vostok 1).Jul 24, 2012

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The first woman in space

  1. Soviet cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkovabecame the first woman to fly to space when she launched on the Vostok 6 mission June 16, 1963. Valentina Tereshkova was the first woman to go into space when she flew Vostok 6 in 1963. She spent almost three days in space and orbited Earth 48 times.Jun 14, 2013

This happened

  1. On June 16, 1963, aboard Vostok 6, Soviet Cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova becomes the first woman to travel into space. After 48 orbits and 71 hours, she returned to earth, having spent more time in space than all U.S. astronauts combined to that date.

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The worlds first artificial satellite


  1. Sputnik



  2. History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball (58 cm.or 22.8 inches in diameter), weighed only 83.6 kg. or 183.9 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path.

This happened

  1. History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball (58 cm.or 22.8 inches in diameter), weighed only 83.6 kg. or 183.9 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path.

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John Glenn was important because

Fifty years ago, John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth, and his nearly five-hour expedition ushered in a new era of spaceflight for the nation.

On Feb. 20, 1962, Glenn piloted NASA's Mercury capsule, known as Friendship 7, three times around Earth, reaching a maximum altitude of about 162 miles (261 kilometers). Glenn's orbital milestone matched the groundbreaking achievement of the rival Soviet Union, which launched cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into orbit 10 months earlier.

On Monday (Feb. 20), NASA will salute 50 years of Americans in orbit by honoring Glenn and his Friendship 7 flight. Since that fateful journey, the agency landed astronauts on the moon, flew 135 space shuttle flights and constructed a $100 billion laboratory in space, among many other accomplishments.

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Dr. Wernher von Braun

Wernher von Braun was born in Wirsitz, Germany, (now Wyrzysk, Poland) on March 23, 1912. His father, Baron Magnus von Braun, was Minister of Agriculture in the Weimar Republic of the early 1930's. In 1920, his family moved to Berlin when their hometown became part of Poland after World War I. Wernher von Braun earned a Bachelor's Degree in Aeronautical Engineering in 1932 from the Berlin Institute of Technology. He received a Ph. D. in Physics two years later from the University of Berlin.


Von Braun did not excell in school until he was thirteen, when he read The Rocket into Interplanetary Space by rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth. The next year his mother gave him his first telescope and he soon decided to devote his life to rocketry and the exploration of space. In September 1929, seventeen-year old von Braun joined the Verein für Raumschiffahrt (the VfR or German Rocket Society), assisting his mentor Oberth in tests of liquid-fuelled rocket engines.

By the 1930's, the German government became highly interested in the military development of rockets, and in pursuit of his dream to build rockets capable of taking man into space, Wernher von Braun began working for the army in 1932. Soon the Nazi government built a large facility for secret rocket development on the Baltic Sea at Peenemünde, a location chosen partly on von Braun's recommendation.


In 1936, Wernher von Braun was named technical director at Peenemünde. At first he helped the German Air Force develop liquid-fuel rocket engines for aircraft and jet-assisted takeoffs. With the outbreak of World War II in 1939, he began to develop a long-range ballistic missile, the A-4 (later renamed the V-2 for "Retaliation/Vengeance Weapon 2"). As von Braun freely admitted after the war, much of the V-2 design was directly borrowed from the writings of the American rocket scientist Robert Goddard.


On October 3, 1942, an experimental A-4 became the first manmade object to reach "technical" outer space, rocketing to an altitude of 50 miles. A liquid propellant missile 46 feet in length, and weighing 27,000 pounds, the V-2 could exceed 3,500 miles per hour, and deliver 2,200-pound warheads up to 500 miles away. The military potential of the V-2 was enthusiastically embraced by Adolf Hitler, who hoped to use rockets against the Allies to retaliate for British and American bombing of Germany's cities.

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The major space

The granddaddy of space telescopes, Hubble has been observing from Earth orbit for more than 19 years. Hubble, the first of NASA's Great Observatories, has revolutionized astronomy, providing stunning images of countless cosmic objects and giving astronomers their most distant views of the universe with the Hubble Deep Field and Ultra Deep Field. Hubble has shed light on the scale of the universe, the life cycle of stars, black holes, and the formation of the first galaxies. Currently receiving its fifth and final makeover, Hubble is expected to last at least another five years, hopefully overlapping with its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope.


Chandra X-ray Observatory / NASA / 1999 / X-ray / Various


The third of NASA's four Great Observatories, Chandra is the world's most powerful X-ray telescope. Chandra, named for Indian-American physicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, examines the X-rays emitted by some of the universe's strangest objects, including quasars, immense clouds of gas and dust and particles sucked into black holes. X-rays are produced when matter is heated to millions of degrees. Chandra has teamed up several times with other telescopes, including Hubble, to take composite images of galaxies and other denizens of the cosmos. It has found previously hidden black holes, provided observations of the Milky Way's own supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, and even taken the first X-ray images of Mars.


Spitzer Space Telescope / NASA / 2003 / IR / Distant and Nearby Objects


Spitzer was the last of the Great Observatories to be launched and gathers the infrared radiation emanating from cosmic objects, including faraway galaxies, black holes and even comets in our own solar system. (Infrared radiation is hard to observe from the ground because it is largely absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere.) Spitzer was the first telescope to see light from an exoplanet, which it was not originally designed to see; it took the temperatures of so-called "hot Jupiters" and found that not all of them are really hot. Spitzer is about to use the last of the liquid helium coolant that has kept its instruments chilled for the past 5.5 years. Spitzer's instruments will be able to keep going for another two years, meanwhile, the European Space Agency's Herschel telescope is designed to pick up where Spitzer left off.


Herschel Space Observatory / ESA & NASA / 2009 / Far-IR / Various


Herschel was lobbed into space on May 14, along with the Planck telescope. Herschel will be the largest, most powerful infrared telescope, looking at the far-infrared to sub-millimeter wavelengths of light generated by some of the coldest objects in space. Herschel is designed to look for water, both in nearby comets and faraway dust clouds, and will also peer into the womb of star formation. Astronomers expect to catch a glimpse of baby stars in the act of forming ? something they have never before been able to see. Like its predecessor Spitzer, Herschel will also take a peek at a few exoplanets.

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The programs studied

  1. The FWS program helps to ensure that college students who are truly in need of the money get the jobs. Federal Work-Study (FWS) provides part-time jobs for undergraduate and graduate students with financial need, allowing them to earn money to help pay education expenses.

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The first american in space

  1. Alan B. Shepard


  2. First American in Space. On May 5, 1961, Mercury Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr. (right, headed to launch) blasted off in his Freedom 7 capsule atop a Mercury-Redstone rocket (left). His 15-minute sub-orbital flight made him the first American in space.

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The first man on the moon

  1. Neil Armstrong


  2. Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first humans on the Moon, Americans Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC. Armstrong became the first to step onto the lunar surface six hours later on July 21 at 02:56 UTC.

This happened

The First Person on the Moon

01.16.08



Astronauts Neil Armstrong, Mike Collins and Buzz Aldrin flew on the Apollo 11 mission. Image Credit: NASA

It was 1961. John F. Kennedy was the president of the United States. He wanted to land humans on the moon. The United States had just started trying to put people in space. Was NASA ready to go to the moon? The president and NASA knew they could do it. They were ready to put people on the moon. Apollo 11's mission was to land two men on the moon. They also had to come back to Earth safely.


Apollo 11 blasted off on July 16, 1969. Neil Armstrong, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin and Michael Collins were the astronauts on Apollo 11.


Four days later, Armstrong and Aldrin landed on the moon. They landed on the moon in the Lunar Module. It was called the Eagle. Collins stayed in orbit around the moon. He did experiments and took pictures.


The sign the astronauts left on the moon says, "Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the moon July 1969, A.D. We came in peace for all mankind." Image Credit: NASA

On July 20, 1969, Neil Armstrong became the first human to step on the moon. He and Aldrin walked around for three hours. They did experiments. They picked up bits of moon dirt and rocks.


They put a U.S. flag on the moon. They also left a sign on the moon.


The two astronauts returned to orbit, joining Collins. On July 24, 1969, all three astronauts came back to Earth safely.


President Kennedy's wish came true. It took less than 10 years. Humans had walked on the moon.
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The First American space station

  1. Skylab


  2. A reusable spacecraft was the obvious solution. In 1968, NASA first called such a spacecraft a space shuttle. In May 1973, the U.S. launched the Skylab space station atop a Saturn V rocket similar to those that took astronauts to the Moon.

This was started

  1. A reusable spacecraft was the obvious solution. In 1968, NASA first called such a spacecraft a space shuttle. In May 1973, the U.S. launched the Skylab space station atop a Saturn V rocket similar to those that took astronauts to the Moon.

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The major international space project

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958[5] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958.[6][7]

Since that time, most U.S. space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo moon-landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. Currently, NASA is supporting theInternational Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program (LSP) which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches.

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The possible means of travel in future space travel

During more than 40 years of spaceflight, a lot of things have changed. Today's Space Shuttle is a luxury ship compared to the Mercury capsules that carried the first American astronauts into space. Forty years ago, a lot of people might have had a hard time believing that Americans and Russians would be living together in space on one Space Station. Space probes have visited every planet except Pluto, and a mission there is currently being planned.

One thing that has changed very little, however, is the way rockets work. While different fuels have been used, and current rocket engines are more high-tech than their early predecessors, the basic concepts involved are basically the same. But, NASA researchers are currently working on a way to change that, as well.

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The possible was to stay in space for a extended period time

But as well as the test of psychological endurance, any long-term space mission would raise some tricky physical challenges too.

The hazards of spaceflight
Astronauts on a long-term mission will find that there are several threats to their health and wellbeing created by the hazardous environment of space.

On top of the psychological stress of being confined in a small space with one or more other people for an extended period of time, there are actual and potential physical effects on the body too, which come from the absence of gravity and the presence of radiation.

These hurdles will all have to be overcome if spacefarers journeying to Mars or beyond are to remain fit and healthy when they get there.

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The missions

U.S. Space Exploration Time Line

Mission

Goals

Landmark Accomplishments

Results (including any accidents and/or fatalities)

Mercury Missions
1958-1963

orbit a manned spacecraft around Earth, investigate how humans could function in space, and recover people and spacecraft safely

on May 5, 1961, Alan Shepard became the first American in space with a suborbital flight that lasted 15 minutes, 28 seconds

launched 25 flights, including six manned missions; no accidents or fatalities

Gemini Missions
1961-1966

subject astronauts to long-duration flights, develop effective methods of docking with other orbiting vehicles, perfect methods of reentry and landing, and gain additional information about the physiological effects of long-duration flights

successfully completed maneuvers, such as docking spacecraft in orbit, that would prove essential to later Apollo missions

launched 12 flights, 10 of them manned; no accidents or fatalities

Apollo Missions
1967-1972

land Americans on the moon, return them safely to Earth, and achieve U.S. preeminence in space

on July 20, 1969, Neil A. Armstrong became the first human to set foot on the moon

launched 15 missions, 12 of them manned; fire started in command module during a 1967 launch simulation for Apollo 1—three astronauts were killed; explosion in service module during lunar flight crippled Apollo 13, though no fatalities resulted

Skylab
1973

investigate whether humans could survive in space for long periods

astronauts performed complex repair tasks inside and out of space station; final crew stayed in space 84 days

completed four missions, three of them manned; no accidents or fatalities

Space Shuttle Missions
1981-2010

originally intended as a transport vehicle but eventually became a low-Earth orbiter

launched 3 million pounds of cargo; transported more than 600 passengers and pilots; traveled more than 366 million miles

completed more than 120 missions by 2008, all manned; Challenger exploded in 1986, killing seven crew members; Columbiadisintegrated during reentry in 2003, killing seven crew members

International Space Station
2000-present

establish a science lab and research facility and create a permanent habitable residence that will maintain and support a human crew

in 1998, first two modules of the ISS were joined together in orbit; first crew arrived in 2000; as of June 2008, ISS contained 12,626 cubic feet of habitable space

completed 17 expeditions by 2008 (18th will launch October 12, 2008); notable for international cooperation and diverse crews; no accidents or fatalities

Use the following rubric to assess students' work.

Excellent

Satisfactory

Needs Improvement

Students are active participants in class discussions. They are able to describe how the U.S. space exploration program has evolved and changed in purpose over time, and they can clearly state why the shuttle disasters occurred.

Students participate in class discussions. They are able to describe how the U.S. space exploration program has evolved and changed in purpose over time, and they can give a broad explanation for why the shuttle disasters occurred.

Students do not participate in class discussions, and may have difficulty describing how the U.S. space exploration program has evolved and changed in purpose over time, or why the shuttle disasters occurred.