Taxonomy

Cassie smith

Taxonomy

Taxonomy is the science of naming, describing and classifying organisms and includes all plants, animals and microorganisms of the world. Using morphological, behavioural, genetic and biochemical observations, taxonomists identify, describe and arrange species into classifications, including those that are new to science. Taxonomy identifies and enumerates the components of biological diversity providing basic knowledge underpinning management and implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Unfortunately, taxonomic knowledge is far from complete.

www.wikipedia.org & www.biology4kids.com

Aristotle

Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, together with Socrates and Plato, laid much of the groundwork for western philosophy. He was born in Circa 384 B.C. in Stagira, Greece. When he turned 17, he enrolled in Plato's Academy in 338, he began tutoring Alexander the Great. In 335, Aristotle founded his own school, The Lyceum, in Athens, where he spent most of the rest of his life studying teaching and writing. Aristotle died in 322 B.C., after he left Athens and fled to Chalcis.

Aristotle was not technically a scientist, science was among the subjects that he researched at length during his time at the Lyceum. Aristotle believed that knowledge could be obtained through interacting with physical objects. He concluded that objects were made up of a potential that could be manipulated to determine the object’s outcome. Aristotle’s research in the sciences included a study of biology. He attempted, to classify animals into genera based on their similar characteristics. He further classified animals into species based on those that had red blood and those that did not. But marine biology was also an area of fascination for Aristotle. Through dissection, he examined the anatomy of marine creatures.

Aristotle was the first to introduce two key concepts of taxonomy: classification of organisms by type and binomial definition.

bigraphy.com & davesgarden.com

Carolus Linnaeus

Linnaeus was born in the village of Rashult in Smaland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707. He was the first child of Nils Ingemarsson Linnæus and Christina Brodersonia. In his early life he knew he liked plants and when his father sent his to school he would take and garden in his free time. In August 1728, Linnaeus decided to attend Uppsala University on the advice of Rothman, who believed it would be a better choice if Linnaeus wanted to study both medicine and botany.But in 1729, Linnaeus wrote a thesis, Praeludia Sponsaliorum Plantarum on plant sexual reproduction.
In 1730-1731 Linnaeus continued working hard on botany in Uppsala. In particular, he had grown dissatisfied with the way plant species were classified. He began making notes about how he could improve this. He also started using a two-part naming system – which would eventually become the Linnaean orbinomial system, used worldwide to name living things. It also came to him that he could use his new system to name animals as well as plants.

Linnaeus developed a way to name and organize species. His two most important contributions to taxonomy were: A hierarchical classification system and the system of binomial nomenclature (a 2-part naming method).

www.famousscientist.org & www.wikipedia.org

Lynn Margulis

Lynn Margulis was born in Chicago, to Morris Alexander and Leona Wise Alexander. She was the first born out of four kids. She entered the Hyde Park Academy High School in 1952, describing herself as a bad student who frequently had to stand in the corner. Also she was accepted to the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools at the age of fifteen. In 1988 she was appointed Distinguished Professor of Botany but in 1993 she was Distinguished Professor of Biology.
Lynn Margolis is one of the most creative scientific theorists of the modern era. She formulated the symbiotic theory of evolution. It which deals with the interconnection of prokaryotic and cukaryotic cells, explaining the emergence of new species by a mechanism known as “symbiogenesis”. In 1983, she was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. She was awarded the the Darwin-Wallace Medal of the Linnean Society of London in 2000. Also she started a theory about aids and hiv.
Margulis formulated a theory to explain how symbiotic relationships between organisms of often different phyla or kingdoms are the driving force of evolution and genetic variation is proposed to occur mainly as a result of transfer of nuclear information between bacterial cells or viruses and eukaryotic cells.

www.wikipedia.org & www.britainnica.com