The Australian Continent

welcome to my class by stormiii c:

Geography

  • Australia is the smallest of the world's continent.
  • It is also the lowest, the flattest and (apart from Antarctica) the driest.
  • Nearly 20 per cent of Australia's land mass is classified as desert.

nearest oceans & countries

  • pacific ocean
  • Indian ocean
  • Indonesia,
  • Papua New Guinea,
  • New Zealand,
  • New Caledonia,
  • Solomon Islands
  • Vanuatu, which are all island nations or territories in the South-East Asian and Asia-Pacific regions.

the capital & major cities




Place

Capital City

Largest City




  • Australian Capital Territory

  • Canberra

    Canberra



    New South Wales

    Sydney

    Sydney


    • Australia is a country, and continent, surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans. Its major cities – Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth, Adelaide – are coastal, but its capital, Canberra, is inland and nicknamed the "Bush Capital." The country is known for its Sydney Opera House, Great Barrier Reef,

    The size of Australia

    2.97 million mi²



    • Australia's Size Compared. Australia is the planet's sixth largest country after Russia, Canada, China, the USA, and Brazil. At 7 692 024 km

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      , it accounts for just five percent of the world's land area of 149 450 000 km

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      , and although it is the smallest continental land mass, it is the world's largest island.

    land form

    Australia's size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with tropical rain-forests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east, and dry desert in the center. It is the flattest continent, with the oldest and least fertile soils desert or semi-arid land commonly known as the outback makes up by far the largest portion of land. The driest inhabited continent

    Natural resources plus trade & imports

    beef production); wheat, sheep zone, cropping principally winter crops. The grazing of sheep for wool, lamb and mutton, plus beef cattle & the pastoral zone characterized by low rainfall, less fertile soils & large scale pastoral activities involving the grazing of beef cattle and sheep for wool and mutton.

    Wool, beef, wheat, crops.



    "What's imported there/incoming goods?

    Australia's economy

    The economy of Australia is one of the largest mixed market economies in the world, with a GDP of AUD$1.62 trillion as of 2015. Australia's total wealth is AUD$6.4 trillion.

    Currency: Australian dollar

    GDP per capita: 67,458.36 USD (2013) World Bank

    Gross domestic product: 1.56 trillion USD (2013) World Bank

    GNI per capita: 42,450 PPP dollars (2013) World Bank

    GDP growth rate: 2.5% annual change (2013) World Bank

    Gross national income: 981.8 billion PPP dollars (2013) World Bank

    Internet users: 83.0% of the population (2013) World Bank


    currency

    1 Australian Dollar equals

    0.73 US Dollar

    $1.00us = to 1.37 AUD

    Government

    Federal Government, is the federal democratic administrative authority of Australia. The Commonwealth of Australia, a federal constitutional monarchy under a parliamentary democracy, was formed in 1901 as a result of an agreement among six self-governing British colonies, which became the six states.

    head of goverment

    Main organ

    Cabinet

    Leader

    Prime Minister

    Appointer

    Governor-General

    Meeting place

    Parliament House

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    the military

    The Australian Defense Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defense of Australia. It consists of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), Australian Army, Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and a number of 'ti-service' units.

    allies

    Australia currently has bilateral Free Trade Agreements with New Zealand, the United States, Thailand and Singapore as of 2007. As well as this, Australia is in the process undertaking studies on Free Trade Agreements with ASEAN, China, Chile, India,Indonesia, and Malaysia.

    religion

    Australia's major religion is Christianity with the major denominations including Catholic, Anglican, Uniting Church, Presbyterian and Reformed, Eastern Orthodox, Baptist and Lutheran. The two major denominations, Anglican and Catholic, account for 42.4% of the Australian population.
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    social classes

    wealthy, middle, poor

    life expectancy

    Life expectancy in Australia has improved dramatically for both sexes in the last century, particularly life expectancy at birth. Compared with their counterparts in 1881–1890, boys and girls born in 2011–2013 can expect to live around 33 and 34 years longer, respectively.

    languages

    About 18% of Australians speak a language other thanEnglish. Australian Indigenous languages are spoken by about 0.3% of the total population. The most common languages other than English are: Italian, Greek,Cantonese, Arabic, Mandarin and Vietnamese.


    but mainly slang English

    edaction system

    School education is similar across all of Australia with only minor variations between states and territories. School education (primary and secondary) is compulsory between the ages of six and sixteen (Year 1 to Year 9 or 10). School education is 13 years and divided into:

    • Primary school - Runs for seven or eight years, starting at Kindergarten/Preparatory through to Year 6 or 7.
    • Secondary school - Runs for three or four years, from Years 7 to 10 or 8 to 10.
    • Senior secondary school - Runs for two years, Years 11 and 12.
    Australia has the third highest number of international students in the world behind only the United Kingdom and the United States despite having a population of only 23 million? This isn’t surprising when you consider Australia has seven of the top 100 universities in the world! In fact, with over 22,000 courses across 1,100 institutions, Australia sits above the likes of Germany, the Netherlands and Japan, ranking eighth in the Universitas 2012 U21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems.

    history

    The History of Australia refers to the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies. Aboriginal Australians are believed to have first arrived on the Australian mainland by sea from Maritime Southeast Asia between 40,000 and 70,000 years ago.


    A number of European explorers sailed the coast of Australia, then known as New Holland, in the 17th century. However it wasn’t until 1770 that Captain James Cook chartered the east coast and claimed it for Britain. The new outpost was put to use as a penal colony and on 26 January 1788, the First Fleet of 11 ships carrying 1,500 people – half of them convicts – arrived in Sydney Harbour. Until penal transportation ended in 1868, 160,000 men and women came to Australia as convicts.

    While free settlers began to flow in from the early 1790s, life for prisoners was harsh. Women were outnumbered five to one and lived under constant threat of sexual exploitation. Male re-offenders were brutally flogged and could be hung for crimes as petty as stealing. The Aboriginal people displaced by the new settlement suffered even more. The dispossession of land and illness and death from introduced diseases disrupted traditional lifestyles and practices.

    Squatters push across the continent

    By the 1820s, many soldiers, officers and emancipated convicts had turned land they received from the government into flourishing farms. News of Australia’s cheap land and bountiful work was bringing more and more boatloads of adventurous migrants from Britain. Settlers or ‘squatters’ began to move deeper into Aboriginal territories – often with a gun - in search of pasture and water for their stock.

    In 1825, a party of soldiers and convicts settled in the territory of the Yuggera people, close to modern-day Brisbane. Perth was settled by English gentlemen in 1829, and 1835 a squatter sailed to Port Phillip Bay and chose the location for Melbourne. At the same time a private British company, proud to have no convict links, settled Adelaide in South Australia.

    Gold fever brings wealth, migrants and rebellion

    Gold was discovered in New South Wales and central Victoria in 1851, luring thousands of young men and some adventurous young women from the colonies. They were joined by boat loads of prospectors from China and a chaotic carnival of entertainers, publicans, illicit liquor-sellers, prostitutes and quacks from across the world. In Victoria, the British governor’s attempts to impose order - a monthly licence and heavy-handed troopers - led to the bloody anti-authoritarian struggle of the Eureka stockade in 1854. Despite the violence on the goldfields, the wealth from gold and wool brought immense investment to Melbourne and Sydney and by the 1880s they were stylish modern cities.

    Australia becomes a nation
    Australia’s six states became a nation under a single constitution on 1 January 1901. Today Australia is home to people from more than 200 countries.

    Australians go to war

    The First World War had a devastating effect on Australia. There were less than 3 million men in 1914, yet almost 400,000 of them volunteered to fight in the war. An estimated 60,000 died and tens of thousands were wounded. In reaction to the grief, the 1920s was a whirlwind of new cars and cinemas, American jazz and movies and fervour for the British Empire. When the Great Depression hit in 1929, social and economic divisions widened and many Australian financial institutions failed. Sport was the national distraction and sporting heroes such as the racehorse Phar Lap and cricketer Donald Bradman gained near-mythical status.

    During the Second World War, Australian forces made a significant contribution to the Allied victory in Europe, Asia and the Pacific. The generation that fought in the war and survived came out of it with a sense of pride in Australia’s capabilities.

    New Australians arrive to a post-war boom

    After the war ended in 1945, hundreds of thousands of migrants from across Europe and the Middle East arrived in Australia, many finding jobs in the booming manufacturing sector. Many of the women who took factory jobs while the men were at war continued to work during peacetime.

    Australia’s economy grew throughout the 1950s with major nation-building projects such as the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme in the mountains near Canberra. International demand grew for Australia’s major exports of metals, wools, meat and wheat and suburban Australia also prospered. The rate of home ownership rose dramatically from barely 40 per cent in 1947 to more than 70 per cent by the 1960s.

    Australia loosens up

    Like many other countries, Australia was swept up in the revolutionary atmosphere of the 1960s. Australia’s new ethnic diversity, increasing independence from Britain and popular resistance to the Vietnam War all contributed to an atmosphere of political, economic and social change. In 1967, Australians voted overwhelmingly ‘yes’ in a national referendum to let the federal government make laws on behalf of Aboriginal Australians and include them in future censuses. The result was the culmination of a strong reform campaign by both Aboriginal and white Australians.

    In 1972, the Australian Labor Party under the idealistic leadership of lawyer Gough Whitlam was elected to power, ending the post-war domination of the Liberal and Country Party coalition. Over the next three years, his new government ended conscription, abolished university fees and introduced free universal health care. It abandoned the White Australia policy, embraced multiculturalism and introduced no-fault divorce and equal pay for women. However by 1975, inflation and scandal led to the Governor-General dismissing the government. In the subsequent general election, the Labor Party suffered a major defeat and the Liberal–National Coalition ruled until 1983.

    Since the 1970s

    Between 1983 and 1996, the Hawke–Keating Labor governments introduced a number of economic reforms, such as deregulating the banking system and floating the Australian dollar. In 1996 a Coalition Government led by John Howard won the general election and was re-elected in 1998, 2001 and 2004. The Liberal–National Coalition Government enacted several reforms, including changes in the taxation and industrial relations systems. In 2007 the Labor Party led by Kevin Rudd was elected with an agenda to reform Australia’s industrial relations system, climate change policies, and health and education sectors.

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