Lebanon

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Geography

Lebanon is located in western Asia near the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. Lebanon is one of the smallest sovereign states in the world.

Syria borders Lebanon on the North and East and Israel borders on the south. Their largest city, Beirut, is also their capital.

History

The region which includes Lebanon had many rulers in the past including the Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines.

During the 5th century Christianity was established, and two centuries later Islam followed. For many centuries the land of Lebanon was mountainous which prevented conquerors from complete dominance, and the region became a refuge for persecuted minors.


The Maronites established themselves in the North region of Lebanon and the Druzes, who were a small group of religious people, settled into the south region of Lebanon. Sadly, they did not get along, little friction occurred between the groups until the 19th century. Small peasant revolts against landowners turned into wars between the Druzes and the Maronites, by 1860 thousands were dead. The sultans of Turkey of the Ottoman Empire, who made the region a part of the Ottoman Empire in 1516, helped the Druzes and Muslims. Meanwhile, the Maronites looked to France and the West for help.


After Turkey’s loss in World War I, France received order (from the League of Nations) to prepare Lebanon for eventual independence. Lebanon became the only state in the Middle East with a Christian majority. Alas, in 1940 the fall of France caused the end to the mandate. Lebanon became independent in 1943, following was a brief period of prosperity and relative freedom.

People and Social of Lebanon

Most of the people of Lebanon are Arabs but there are small groups of Armenians and Kurds. While Arabic is their main language, many people speak English and French.

Lebanon’s diverse culture is a result of its admixture of various religious, linguistic, and socioeconomic groups. Family and kinship play a central role in Lebanese social relationships, in both the private and public spheres. Although family structure is traditionally largely patriarchal, women are active in education and politics. Because of the country’s diverse religious makeup, Lebanese citizens observe a variety of holidays.

Political Of Lebanon

Lebanon is a republic. Lebanon has experienced many wars and battles that were both civil and international. After the war against Lebanon and Israel, major conflicts have seemed to decline. But, there was a political crisis that erupted between rivals between the Lebanese factions, over the issue of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon.

Recent political developments

On March 22, 2013 Prime Master Najib Mikati resigned after his divided cabinet was unable to agree on a new election law and parliament's refusal to extend the tenure of the country’s police chief.

The conflict, continuing in neighboring Syria increased tensions in Lebanon, by splitting the country into two opposing blocs: the Shia movement Hezbollah and its supporters backing Syrian President Bashar-al Assad, while many Sunni Muslims sympathies with the rebel fighters who are trying to oust him. The conflict has forced 400,000 Syrians to seek refuge in Lebanon, putting an extensive pressure on the country to cope with the influx.

The EU seeks to help Lebanon develop into a stable, democratic, politically open and economically string neighbor.

Economy Of Lebanon

Lebanon's most important economic activities are the services, which include banking and tourism. Manufacturing is also a big importance to Lebanon. They produce cement, food products, jewelry, clothing, machinery, chemicals, and wood products.

Their agriculture is mostly located along the Mediterranean coast and in the Bekaa valley. Their main corps include potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, citrus fruits, onions, grapes, apples, and olives. Their livestock are concentrated on the goats and sheep.

Conflicts

War in Lebanon (Listed by the order of events "Israel and Lebanon")

  • The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) had been launching attacks against Israel since the 1960s.

  • The organization established bases in southern Lebanon, which continued the attack on Israel.

  • PLO rockets were fired on Israeli settlements.Israel began to conduct air strikes on Lebanon.

  • Israel attempted to destroy the PLO forces, and so they began bombing Lebanon and Beirut on June 5, 1982.

  • In August Israel entered Beirut in an attempt to turn control of Lebanon into the hands of the Phalangists, who were a religious Christian Lebanese group that had become allies of Israel.

  • On May 17, 1983, Israel and Lebanon signed an agreement to end the war, and Israeli forces began leaving the Beirut area in September.

  • Israel took control of two Palestinian refugee camps and permitted the Christian militia to enter.

  • In result there were massacres of several hundred Palestinian and Lebanese civilians which then provoked storms to a rise in a worldwide protest.

  • An agreement was then signed to end the war, and Israeli forces began leaving the Beirut area in September.

  • Israel completed its withdrawal of combat troops from most Lebanon in June 1985….

  • After that war there was still tension between the two nations ever since the agreement was signed and so, Israel continued to occupy what is called a “security zone”.

U.S-Lebanon Relationship

Since the establishment of Lebanon in 1943 the Lebanon and the U.S. have had a strong relationship. Even though they had strong bonds that were made from the contributions from America to Lebanon the relationship was hindered during Lebanon’s long war. Especially when Israel invaded Lebanon in 1982 and the entrance of the U.S. military into Lebanon. The U.S. bombing of Lebanon’s coast and mountains, the terrorist attack on the U.S. Embassy, the bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks and the prolonged misery of some Americans who were held hostage by some Lebanese groups took a profound toll on the U.S-Lebanon relationship.

On August 3, 2010, Israeli and Lebanese had a mini conflict over a border violation, raising concerns that the US was supporting the military hostile to Israel, which they were to prevent a war from happening between the two. US aid to Lebanon stopped for 3 months until a decision was made that supporting the LAF (Lebanese Armed Forces) would not result in an increased threat to Israeli regional security. The U.S. believes that a peaceful, stable, and prosperous Lebanon can make an important contribution to comprehensive peace in the Middle East.

Mesopotamia's Influence on Lebanon

Mesopotamia had a huge influence on Lebanon. First, Lebanon was influenced by the Land and Climate. The land and climate affected the farming and the types of plants that can and can’t be grown in that region. Large groves of orange and olive thrive in the rich coastal soil, and farmers also grow bananas, figs, grapes, and other fruits there. Apples and potatoes are raised in the foothills. In a place called the Bekaa Valley, is very rich in farming and because of that, producing tobacco, vegetables, cotton, grains, and mulberries are very easy to grow.