History of stamp
History of this review
Prestamps signs of postal payment
The idea of a paper label as a sign of postal payment was offered in different times, and the postage stamp has predecessors:
• 1653-1654 - Jean-Jacques Renoir de Wilaya (FR. Jean-Jacques Renouard de Villayer), organized by the permission of Louis XIV regular postal service in Paris, issued tickets for payment of mail collection (Billet de port payé) for the price of 1 su (salt), which wrapped postal items.
• 1660-1663 - under Henry Bishop in England appeared the first stamp of the post collection, including an indication of the amount that should have received with the message recipient.
• 1660 - Robert Murray organized the first city private mail, which passed into the hands of his business partner, a merchant William Dockwra. The postal service has received the name «the penny post,» due to the rate for 1 penny for the delivery of letters weighing up to 1 pound.
• 1819-1837 - in a Sardinian Kingdom issued galleries sheets of writing paper for letters, called ital. Carta postala bolata , on which the blue paint printed price of 15, 25 and 50 payment and was the picture of a boy on horseback, blowing in the post horn. Depending on the price of a sheet form stamp was round, oval or octagonal; the paper had various watermarks to prevent forgery.
• 1823 - Swedish Lieutenant curry Gabriel Treffenberg has suggested to enter the envelopes of the advance payment from the printed on them trademark, performed relief embossed or colorful allegorical figure, which would be difficult to counterfeit.
· 1834-1839 - James Chalmers, Scottish bookseller and publisher, wrote and produced the projects signs of postal payment.
· 1835-1836 - Lovrenc Košir, an Austrian official, assistant of the mail clerk and Slovene descent, proposed to pre-pay for the postage with the help of adhesive stamps.
The world's first postage stamp
"Father of a postage stamp," said Sir Rowland Hill (born Rowland Hill, 1795-1879). The first in the history of the brand is called "Penny Black" (English Penny Black), was released on May 6, 1840 in the UK.
Subsequently, the world postal Union introduced a rule that prescribes mandatory indication of the trademark name of the issuing country are made in Latin letters. United Kingdom - a first in the history of the country that used the signs, "was the only state to be exempt from the requirements of this rule.
The First stamps of other countries
Following the release of the first brands in the UK in 1840, stamps began to appear in the light and in other countries:
For the first time the use of cut marks was the world's first issue. In 1841, the British office of a notary, cutting a chump blue signs and use each half as a sign of postage, expressed in a single penny, not only set a precedent for future family birthday sectional brands, but also enriched the next generation of collectors another rarity. Only in 1936, almost a hundred years after the events described, philatelists found envelopes, half blue noggin. All over the world, as far as is known, there are only three halves on pieces plus two for the entire envelope. All five cut marks were used by lawyers for correspondence between notaries in Lincoln, Beverly and the bull.
Blue twopence phylitalistic name of the second in the world in a postage stamp issued in the UK in may 1840, together with the «Black penny».
Mark denominated in two pence was printed in London in the beginning of may 1840 with twoprinted plates (plate). It was like a «Black penny», the first stamp with the same pattern - a profile of Queen Victoria, but in a different color and dignity in one penny. It is assumed that both the brand could be printed at the same time. However, the earliest date on the post stamp, which was repaid twopence relates to 8 may 1840, that is, two days after the official release in the treatment of onepenny brand. According to other sources , allegedly known to the letter sent on may 2, on which were pasted mark black value of 1 penny («penny Black») and the blue - 2 pence.
In 1841, color marks were revised: onepenny mark has become red-brown («Red penny»), and twopenny printed in the new blue color. As a result of postal employees, who worked at sufficiently low light, can more easily distinguish between a two-cent stamp and «penny Black» with the same pattern. In this case, to distinguish the brand new from the first issue, it was decided to add horizontal lines at the top and bottom of the picture.
In 1858, was issued a similar mark, but with letters to the four corners, unlike the original version, that had the letters only in the two bottom corners. In addition, for these brands used different watermarks. The first edition was watermark «crown», were later used watermarks «rose», «anchor» or «star».
Compared to the «penny Black», «Blue twopence is much less and is more expensive, since the circulation of«the Black penny» of the mass-mailing routine letters were much more.
Block of 48 (12 × 4) «Blue twopence» 1840 issue, almost a century was considered to be lost, in 1998, went under the hammer for $ 4.5 million.
A couple of brands with the right margin at auction Sotheby's, held for a charitable purpose, went on March 6, 2009 for £54 050.
The Cut marks
In 1841, a few twopence blue marks were cut one English notarial office in order to use each half in as a sign of postal payment of the par value of a penny. These were the first in the history of the cut marks, which subsequently became a collection of unique. They were found philatelists in 1936, envelopes, Finance fees halves of blue twopence.
According to available information, in the whole world there are only three such cut brand in half and two on the whole envelopes, which were used by lawyers for the forwarding of correspondence between a notary offices in Lincoln, Beverly (eng. Beverley) and the bull.
Among the most bizarre British laws including the prohibition of sticking to the envelope postage stamps with the head of the monarch upside down. It is equivalent in the UK to treason.