Cells

Cell membrane

  • Not a solid structure container
  • Made of millions of small molecules
  • Protect the cell from its surroundings
  • present from Plants
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Cell wall

  • Made of cellulose
  • Acts as a pressure vessel
  • prevents over-expansion when water enters
  • Present from Plants
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Cytoplasm

  • fluid that fills a cell
  • The cytoplasm of a cell contains both the jelly-like substance inside a cell, and the sub-structures of the cell itself
  • serves a protective buffer
  • protects internal and external damage
  • Present from both plants and animals
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Nucleus

  • inside DNA
  • doesn't really have a structure
  • acts like the brain
  • Control eating, movement, and reproduction
  • present from both plants and animals
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Nuclear membrane

  • Arranged in a bi layer
  • keeps DNA inside to protect from surrounding substances in cytoplasm
  • Made of two
  • present from both plants and animals
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Nucleolus

  • non-membrane bound structure composed of proteins and nuclei acids found within the nucleus
  • The nucleous takes up around 25% of the volume of the nucleus
  • Presents from plants
  • allow macromolecules with a molecular weight up to 2,000 kDato be easily circulated throughout the nucleolus.
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Centrioles

  • There when its time to divide
  • put to work in both of the process of mitosis and meiosis
  • small set of mircotubules arranged in a specific way
  • present in animals cells
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Chromatin

  • chromatin is composed of histones and DNA
  • DNA chain wrapped around the 8 core histone forms basic chromatin
  • Pageage DNA into a small volume to fit into the nucleus
  • Protect the DNA structure and sequence
  • Present from both plants and animals
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Ribosomes

  • ribosomes are the proteins builders or proteins synthesizers of the cell
  • present in both plants and animals cells
  • no membrane bound organelles
  • ribosomes float freely
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Golgi apparatus

  • Found in most cells
  • Packaging organelle
  • Gathers simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex
  • Shaped like pancakes
  • present in both plants and animals
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Endoplasmic reticulum

  • packaging and manufacturing system
  • works closely with the golgi apparatus and ribosomes
  • a network membranes found through out the cell and connected to the nucleus
  • present in both plant and animal cells
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Mitochondria

  • powerhouses to cells
  • acts like a digestive system
  • takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and create energy rich molecules for cells
  • floats free through out the cell
  • shaped perfectly to maximize their productivity
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Chloroplast

  • food producers
  • converts light energy of the sun into sugars that can be used by cells
  • two membranes contain and protect the inner parts of the chloroplast (photosynthesis)
  • present from plant cells
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Lysosomes

  • holds enzymes
  • used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies
  • specialized vesicle
  • present in animals cells
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Peroxisomes

  • small vesicles found around the cell
  • contents digestive enzymes for breaking down toxic materials
  • absorb nutrients
  • membrane bound organelles
  • present from animal and plant cells
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Vacuole

  • membrane bound
  • storage bubbles for cells
  • present in animal and plant cells
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cytoskeleton

  • help with shape, support, and movement
  • structural components: microfliaments, intermediate, and microtubules
  • present in both plant and animals cells
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