Ancient Egypt

"the gift of the Nile"

Egypt is in Africa

Ancient runs along the banks of the Nile, then ends at the Mediterranean sea. Egypt is on the continent of Africa. Egypt is most commonly know for there pyramids, tombs were they buried pharaohs, and their sphinxes, guardians of the pyramids. Also they are known for their mummies. Mummies are the body of a human or a animal that have been chemically preserved by removing the eternal organs. Another thing that Egyptians are know for is their hieroglyphics. Hieroglyphics are a series of symbols to represent a word or phrase. Hieroglyphics were written on a thick paper-like material called papyrus.

Key parts in the physical geography of Egypt

The Nile played a huge role in Egyptian lives

The Nile River runs straight through Egypt. The Nile provides many things for Egypt such as food, protection, and silt. When the Nile flooded it was easier to predict than the flooding in Mesopotamia. The Nile flooded Upper Egypt in mid-summer and Lower Egypt in the fall. When it flooded it covered the land in rich silt. this enabled the Egyptians to farm along the Nile. They loved it when it flooded Egyptians called their country black land because silt made the land a dark color. The dry lifeless areas were called red land. the river provided fish and birds for the Egyptians. If the Nile didn't exist then the Egyptians probably would not have survived.
Egypt had natural barriers that made it hard to invade. The desert to the west was too harsh and big to cross. Also the Nile had certain areas that were rough and almost impossible to cross. These areas were called cataracts or rapids.

Egyptian Social Hiearchy

The pharaoh ruled ancient Egypt as a god. The social hierarchy in ancient Egypt is a lot like the one in Mesopotamia, it is centered around religion. Everyone in Egypt knew where they were one the Social "Pyramid'' (pun intended). Slaves were at the bottom of the pyramid and were usually looked down on. They had to do whatever they were told by whoever they were told. You couldn't just get a promotion and move up a level, you were born into the level. Ninety-five percent of the time Pharaohs came from a Dynasty (A line of rulers form the same family.

The Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone is a stone with writing in two languages, using three scripts. The Rosetta Stone was the most important find in linguistic history.The stone allowed people to understand many languages. It allowed us to learn about government and religion in Egypt. The Rosetta stone was a huge stone slab with a bunch of writing. The writing was in different languages. The languages are Greek, Egyptian, and demotic Egyptian.

Pharaohs of Egypt

There are many pharaohs that ruled over Egypt. Although only a few of those pharaohs made their mark in history. Menes the first pharaoh of Egypt unified upper and lower Egypt. This made Egypt one country under one rule. Another pharaoh named Ramses ll , also known as Ramses the great,built forts to strengthen the western frontier. He also expanded the kingdom and built lasting temples. Ramses the second was the first pharaoh to sigh a peace treaty with his enemies ( the Hittites). This ended years and years of war and hostility in Egypt. Khufu built the pyramid of Giza. The pyramid of Giza was so great that it became a Wonder of the Ancient world. Not only is it a wonder but it is also the only wonder still standing too. Cleopatra was a strong female leader. She became an ally with Julius Caesar and Mark Anthony. King Tutankhamen was the youngest pharaoh to rule over Egypt and he died very young. Because he was young Egyptians made him a golden sarcophagus filled his tomb with treasures. Scientists have unbarred his tomb and know they know m ore about the Egyptians. Queen Hatsheput was the first female pharaoh of Egypt. She disguised herself to look like a man so people wouldn't judge her because she was a woman. Finally the final pharaoh I will be talking about is Alexander the Great was one of the greatest military leaders in history. He conquered many countries and fought in many great battles.

Religion in Egypt

Egypt had one of the most complex religions ever. They believed in many gods, this is called polytheism. Because of their religion Egyptians had many customs and traditions that they followed. The pharaoh of Egypt ruled over everyone as a god He/she was therefore at the top of the social hierarchy. One of those gods was named Anubis god of funerals and death, protector of the dead. Egyptians had many temples o worship different idols and gods. The temples were usually held up by obelisks. They also believed in life after death ( the afterlife). To better prepare themselves for the afterlife they did a process called mummification. Mummification was when people removed all the eternal organs of the body and placed them in jars. Then after that was all done they covered the body in oils to preserve it an placed the body in a sarcophagus. Then they finally placed the body in tomb in the pyramid. The Egyptians believed that the soul was made up of five parts the Ren, the Ba, the Ka, the Sheut, and the Ib. The Ka was one of the most important parts, it was the vital essence.
Mesopotamia and Egypt

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