Olivia Graves

Overall Characteristics

  • 55% plasma,
  • 45% red blood cells (RBCs),
  • <1% leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs) and platelets (thrombocytes)

Blood Volume:
  • male: 5-6 liters
  • female: 4-5 liters

Blood is formed in red bone marrow and is controlled by the hormones erythropoeitin (RBCs) and lymphokins (WBCs) to determine what the hematopoeitic stem cell will develop int.


  • liquid part of blood (consists of water, nutrients, salts)
  • 90% water
  • plasma proteins: albumins--thicken and maintain blood volume, globulins--antibodies that protect body from infections, fibrgens & prothrombin--needed for coagulation

Functions & Maintaining Homeostasis:

  • rids rids cells of waste
  • hormones/regulatory chemicals dissolve into plasma

Plasma Donation:

  • plasma cannot be synthesized in a laboratory, creating a need for plasma
  • used to treat hemophilia, immune system deficiencies, and burn/shock victims
  • draw blood through a needle
  • plasma is separated from the rest of the blood by centrifusion

Erythrocytes (RBCs)

  • usually live 120 days
  • production is caused by the need for oxygen
  • filled with hemoglobin
  • cells do not contain a nucleus
  • biconcave disk shape

Functions & Maintaining Homeostasis:

  • carry oxygen to cells
  • transport harmful carbon dioxide away from cells

Hematocrit Test (Hct):

  • measurement of the total blood volume composed of RBCs
  • blood is placed in a hematocrit tube, then spun to separate the plasma, white blood cells, platelets, and RBCs

Hemoglobin (Hb):

  • globular protein
  • four iron molecules attached to each Hb molecule
  • bands together with oxygen
  • carries large amounts of oxygen to different cells
  • Hb test: measures amount of Hb in blood; finger prick or drawn by needle to collect a sample of blood


  • definition: inadequate number of RBCs, defficiency of Hb, or lack of iron in the blood
  • hemolytic: RBCs are prematurely destroyed/killed
  • iron defficiency: without the proper amount of iron in the diet, Hb is not able to be produced
  • hemorrhagic: decrease in number of RBCs cause by excessive bleeding or ulcers
  • sickle cell: abnormal type of Hb; solid crystals form in RBCs, oxygen content is low causing deformation of the RBC
  • pernicious: a failure in the stomach lining that affects the absorption of the B12 vitamin, which is necessary for RBC production


  • the excess production of RBCs in bone marrow; chronic condition
  • causes: mutation in a protein belonging to a bone marrow cell
  • treatments: removing blood from the body, low-dose asprin, medications

Donating Blood:

  • a needle is used to draw the blood (about a pint is collected)
  • blood donations can be done as often as every eight weeks
  • the blood is separated into its different components (RBCs, WBCs, platelets)
  • could potentially help three different patients
  • shelf-life up to 42 days

Luekocytes (WBCs)

  • larger than RBCs
  • contain a nucleus
  • phagocytosis: ability to egulf foreign material and digest it
  • chemotaxis: cells are drawn to an area by chemical release
  • diapedesis: movement of cells through vessels and tissues


  • Immune System: attack foreign and harmful viruses and bacteria

The Five Types:

Granulocytes: short lived; give color to cells

1) neutrophil

  • most common (60% of total)
  • segmented nucleus
  • fights acute bacterial infections
  • highly phagocytic

2) eosinohil

  • makes up 2% of total
  • larger than a neutrophil
  • bilobed nucleus
  • fights parasitic infections, breaks down antibody complex

3) basophil

  • rarest (0.0004% of total)
  • bilobed nucleus
  • involved in inflammation (Histamine, Bradykinin)
  • contains Heparin (anti-coagulant)

Agranulocytes: long lived; seen in chronic infections

4) lymphocyte

  • second most numorous (31% of total)
  • round nucleus, little cytoplasm
  • very long life and produces immunity
  • non-phagocytic, fight viruses

5) monocyte

  • also called marcrophages (if not in blood)
  • largest of all WBCs
  • kidney shaped nucleus
  • highly phagocytic
  • seen in chronic infections

Conditions & Treatments:

  • leukemia: cancer of red bone marrow and lymphatic system; can be treated by chemo, radiation, and targeted therapy and stem cell transplants.
  • mononucleosis: the "kissing disease;" can be passed spread by saliva and sneezing; treatment is bedrest and drinking fluids
  • leukopenia: low white blood cell count; causes a higher risk of infection; can be treated by blood transfusions, and medications.
  • multiple myeloma: cancer of plasma cells where they accumulate in bone marrow that crowd healthy blood cells; can be treated by chemo, targeted, radiation and biological therapies, corticosteroids, and stem cell transplants.

Thrombocytes (Platelets)

  • sticky
  • flat

Function & Maintaining Homeostasis:

  • platelet plug
  • forms clots in blood using thrombin and fibrinogen creating fibrin
  • fibrin seals damaged blood vessels


  • the stoppage of blood

1) vascular spasm

2) platelet plug (temporary seal)

3) clotting cascade (coagulation)


  • rare condition
  • blood does not coagulate
  • high risk of internal bleeding
  • treatment: antifibrinolytics, fibrin sealants, and injection of desmopressen (hormone).

Blood Thinners:

  • coumadin (warfarin): helps to prevent new clots from forming and prevents clot from progressing
  • heparin: given to prevent clots in patients after surgery; can be used to treat certain heart and lung conditions
  • aspirin: used to reduce risk of heart attack