Grammar 101

By: Madison Clark and Jahnavi Pathan

Common Phrase's

The three most common phrases are prepositional, participial, and appositive.

Prepositional Phrase

A prepositional phrase ALWAYS starts with a preposition.(see video below for all the prepositions)

Ex: Under (preposition)

In a prepositional phrase the preposition should come before the object and any following modifiers.

Ex: Under the tree.

Tree is the object and the is the modifier.

The modifier is anything between the object and preposition.

There are two types of prepositional phrases, adverb and adjectives.


In the sentence if there is a verb before the prepositional phrase it is a adverb prepositional phrase.

Ex: The dog is running under the tree.

Running is a verb so that makes the phrase a adverb prepositional phrase.


In the sentence if there is a adjective before the prepositional phrase it is a adjective prepositional phrase.

Ex: The white dog under the tree is a beagle.

White is the adjective because it is describing the dog.

The Preposition Song

Participial Phrase

Participial is a verb ending in "ed", "en", or "ing". Its followed by a object and any modifiers.

Ex: Spot, running around the tree, saw a squirrel


Appositive Phrase

An appositive phrase is one that further identifies the noun or pronoun. When it adds extra information it is separated by commas.

Ex: Spots, a dog with fluffy brown hair, is running fast.

Appositive Song Week 20


Is a group of similar words that includes a subject and verb. The 2 types of clauses are Independent Clauses and Dependent Clauses.

Independent Clauses

Includes a subject and verb and can stand alone.

Basically you can say that an independent clause is a sentence.

Ex: The dog is running.

Dog would be the subject and running is the verb. Since it has both a subject and a verb it is a independent clause.

Dependent Clause

A dependent clause also contains a subject and a verb but it can NOT stand alone.

A dependent clause begins with a relative pronoun or a subordinating conjunction

Subordinating conjunction:

as, although, while, when, until, before, etc.

Relative Pronoun:

who, that, which,etc

Ex: As we walked to the store

Notice how it is not a complete thought but still contains a subject and verb.

Complex Sentences

A complex sentence is an independent and dependent clauses connected together. The dependent clause comes after the independent clause.

Ex: Since I went to the party, my parents grounded me.(Need a comma)

Ex: My parents grounded me since I went to the party.(Don't need a comma)

if the dependent clause comes first you have to put a comma but if the independent clause comes first you don't need a comma.

Compound sentence

A compound sentence is 2 independent clauses connected by a comma and a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS)

Cordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS)

For, and, nor,but,or,yet,etc.

Ex: Spot is running, and Sam is chasing him.

Simple Sentences

A simple sentence is basically an independent clause on its own.

Ex: The dog is running.

THE END!!!!!