Basic Chemistry


Atoms and Ions

Atoms are the basic unit of chemistry. They are made up of protons, electrons, and neutrons. Protons are positive, electrons are negative, and neutrons are neutral. An ion is the imbalance between protons and electrons in an atom.


Elements are a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances with different properties.
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Bohr Models

It represents the stable orbit of electrons around the nucleus.

Covalent Bonds

During a covalent bond, atoms share electrons to fill their outer shell. They will only form between nonmetals. This bond causes the atoms to overlap. Double and triple bonds form when atoms share more than one pair of electrons.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonds are bonds between oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds form between metals and nonmetals. The atoms lose or gain electrons to form bonds. Gaining electrons gives a negative charge and losing electrons gives a positive charge.
How To Make A Chemical Bond
How to Draw Bohr-Rutherford Diagrams - Potassium

Lewis Dot Structure

Electrons in the outer most shell only.
Bonding Models and Lewis Structures: Crash Course Chemistry #24

pH Scale and Range

pH Scale:

The pH scale measures the amount of acidity (H+) or basicity (OH-) of solution.

A buffer resists pH change by accepting H+ OH-.

Acids are on a scale from 1-7, 7 is considered neutral, and 7-14 is a base.

pH Range:

When water ionizes, it releases equal amounts of hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-)

Acid releases H+ ions in a solution

Bases releases OH- ions in a solution

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Isotopes are atoms of a single element that have different numbers of neutrons. They have the same number of protons but have a different atomic masses.

Ex: Carbon-12 & Carbon-14

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