Language and Learning Implications
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)
CVA affect on language development and language performance
Some specific disorders in speech and language that may be seen in this population could include:
Dysarthria- a motor disorder that involves poor coordination, limited range of motion, and decreased strength of muscles used for speech (Morgan & Vogel, 2008). Children may have spastic or flaccid muscular tone.
Apraxia of speech- difficulty with motor planning of the muscles required for speech that is not due to a specific motor disorder or weakness. Children may have difficulty coordinating the necessary muscles to produce speech
Aphasia- a disorder of at least one type of communication modality (production, comprehension, reading, and/or writing). Children may have difficulty with expressive or receptive language abilities requiring therapy.
Auditory Processing Disorder- a disorder in the ability of the central nervous system to accurately and quickly process auditory information. Children may have difficulty understanding speech in noise.
Dysphagia- difficulty in swallowing function that may be experienced after an acute CVA event (Lefton-Greif & Arvedson, 2008). Children may require modified diets for brief or longer time periods.
- Sensory processing disorders
- Specific learning impairments
- Attention problems
- Behavioral problems
- Cognitive impairments
These learning difficulties may be lasting, and may require special education and classroom modifications and accommodations depending on the extent of the difficulty. Medication may be able to alleviate some issues, as with attention problems (Pediatric Stroke, 2015). Unfortunately, a child does not typically experience only one of the language, learning, or physical limitations but often experiences multiple difficulties, requiring a variety of different types of rehabilitation, therapeutic, and medical services.
Possible Physical Limitations
- Cerebral Palsy
- Seizure disorders
- Vision problems
- Hearing problems
Due to the often lasting effects of these physical issues that may be experienced by children, physical and occupational therapy are often provided for many years to increase a child's functional abilities (Pediatric Stroke, 2015).