Pioneer Space Missions

By Neomi Palacios

pioneer missions

the purpose of all of the Pioneer missions were to take pictures of far away places in space. Also to take temperatureof space, and coloct some other important data

pioneer 1

pioneer 1 was the first spacecraft launched by the newly formed 1 was originally designed to land on the moon but it failed to do so because of a valve that was incorrectly set in the upper stage of the probe. The spacecraft ended its transmission when it reentered the Earth's atmosphere after 43 hours of flight on October 13, 1958 over the south pacific ocean and only a small amount of of scientific information was returned .

pioneer 2

pioneer 2 was made to orbit all the moon pioneer 2 was nearly identical to pioneer 1 and consisted of almost the same material. and then shortly after the launch, the third stage of the launch vehicle separated but failed to failed to orbit the moon a very small amount of information was collected.

pioneer 3

pioneer 3 was launched by the u.s army ballistic missile agency . the mission was to pass the moos then after 33.75 hours and then go into its solar orbit but a broken propeller caused an engine to shut down.The probe returned for about 25 hours of its 38 hour 6 minute journey. the information that was brought back showed that the internal temperature remained at about 43 degrees C over most of the time.

pioneer 4

After a successful launch Pioneer 4 succeeded its primary objective which was an an earth moon trajectory The probe was tracked for 82 hours to a distance of 655,000 km and reached perihelion on 18 March 1959

pioneer 5

pioneer 5 was used to investigate interplanetary space between the orbits of earth and Venus.The major portion of the data was received at the Manchester and Hawaii tracking stations because their antennas had better signal and were able to retrieve all the data clearly.The spacecraft established a communications link with the earth from a record distance of 22.5 million miles on June 26, 1960, which was the last day of data transmission.

pioneer 6

the probe was spin stabilized exactly like the other pioneer probes so they won't spin out of 6 had a solar power antenna so if it ran out of battery is could still run on solar power nasa does not track the probe regularly for data in years.

pioneer 7

Pioneer 7 was launched on 17 August 1966 into a solar orbit.there are no further plans to track or attempt communication with Pioneer 7.

pioneer 8

Pioneer 8 was launched on 13 December 1967 into a heliocentric orbit.They last contacted the the spacecraft successfully was on 22 August 1996, after being commanded to the backup transmitter tube.Nasa doesn't need the probe for now but they might need it in the future.

pioneer 9

pioneer 9 was used to study cosmic rays magnetic fields cosmic dust and electric fields.they kept track of the probe until may 1983. NASA made an unsuccessful attempt in 1987 to contact the probe and then the mission was declared inactive at that time

pioneer 10

30 years ago they sent pioneer 10 to space they received pioneer 10’s last signal so NASA space engineers the power source of pioneer 10 has decayed and the spacecraft cannot be located any more. on march 2nd 1972 the pioneer spacecraft was the first to travel through an asteroid belt and the first to make close observations and take close pictures of jupiter.

pioneer 11

pioneer 11 was the first mission to explore saturn. pioneer 11 also discovered saturn's new moon and it recorded a temperature of -180°C for the probe is drifting out of our solar system. both pioneer 10 and 11 have a plaque on them with a message for any intelligent beings out there

pioneer 12

the spacecraft returned global maps of the planet's clouds, atmosphere and ionosphere, measurements of the atmosphere-solar wind interaction, and radar maps of 93 percent of the planet's surface