Lung Cancer

By Sofia Husainy and Cayley Barry

Definition

Lung Cancer is a disease which cells of the lungs grow uncontrollably and form tumors made of abnormal cells. There are two types of lung cancer Non-Small Cell cancer and Small Cell cancer(The Gale Encyclopedia of medicine).

Fig. 5 (Right) Lung Cancer Cell - The Gale Encyclopedia

Lung Cancer is the second most common cancer for both men and women.(The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine)


  • About 221,200 new cases in 2015 (both small cell and non small cell)

  • About 158,040 deaths

The majority of the symptoms occur to be physical ranging from simple chest pain or shortness of breathe to recurring lung infections such as bronchitis or pneumonia (The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine) .

To make a diagnosis doctors first look into medical history and physical examination.

Doctors Look into...

  • If you are a smoker

  • Other respiratory problems

  • Use x-rays of the chest

  • CT scans or MRI

  • Sputum Analysis


Fig. 6 (Right) Doctor - cancertutor.com

Sputum analysis has detected at least 30% of all cancers. It can detect the earliest stages(Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine).

What is Non-Small Cell cancer?

Non- small cell cancer is the most common type of lung cancer out of the two. About 85%-90% of lung cancer patients are non-small cell. Within this cancer there are 3 sub types:(American Cancer Society).

- Squamous cell (epidermoid) carcinoma

- Adenocarcinoma

- Large cell (undifferentiated) carcinoma

What is Small Cell cancer?

Small cell cancer is the rarer form of lung cancer. Only 10%-155 of people have this form. Rarely a person who has never smoked has small cell cancer. This type of cancer also tends to spread all throughout the body and is difficult to treat (American Cancer Society).

The causes of Lung Cancer are...

There are many factors that can lead to the cause of lung cancer, however, tobacco smoking is the leading cause with about 90% of lung cancer comes from. Many other carcinogens also pose high risk of creating lung cancer that are present in a numerous amount of different jobs and activities people complete in their everyday lives. Lung cancer can also be caused from lung problems acquired over a period of time, or born with, due to family history of having the cancer (The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine).


Fig. 7 (Left) Lung Caner and Causes - ABC News Radio

Cancer Facts : How Does Lung Cancer Develop?

Cancer Facts : How Does Lung Cancer Develop? YouTube. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dd2jYSTi9NM>. SOURCE 9

Cellular Lung Cancer Cells vs. Molecular Lung Cancer Cells

Cellular Level:

All cancers are caused by the uncontrollable process in cell division. However, the cellular cancer level contains a lower amount of ATP production due to the cells being taken over by mycotoxins which consume the glucose, lowering the ATP (Independent Cancer Research Foundation).


Molecular Level:

Molecular level lung cancer is mostly found in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and is brought on by mutations of the cancer. All people can be affected by this form of the cancer and have a greater risk of obtaining it when they are small molecule inhibitors (Christine M. Lovly, M.D., Ph. D).

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Fig.4 Lung Cancer - cancer.org

Treatments and Cures of Lung Cancer...

Treatments:

A common treatment used to deal with severe lung cancer cases is called pneumonectomy which is when a lung is removed. This can happen in severe issues, or if the tumor is located at the center of the lung. Another treatment is radiation which sends radioactive rays throughout the body and can be done internally or externally. These both reduce the risk of dying from lung cancer however, neither work 100% of the time, however, they are major cures. Physical therapy is used as well in less severe cases, and somewhat helps the victim, however it is not as effective as the treatments mentioned earlier (The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine).

Cures:

Mentioned before; there is not one way to cure lung cancer (The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine). However, if people did these tasks, they would lower their chances of obtaining lung cancer by a significant amount:

    • stop smoking tobacco (especially long-term smokers)

    • avoiding occupations involving harmful fumes surrounding the worker for the duration of the workday

    • avoid shortness of breath through high and/or low levels of activity

    • see doctor about harmful cough

    • do not have long- term exposure to harmful fumes at anytime

Sofie's Annotation


The American Cancer Society is one of the most well-known organizations for cancer. On their website there aren’t really authors. It looks like they collectively put their information about cancer onto pages and links and constantly keep updating and revising the pages. At the bottom of each of the pages it says the date it was last revised and when the last medical review was as well. The ACS has been an organization for many, many years and has grown to be a reliable organization that is dedicated to eliminating cancers and finding their cures. In this organization they have a line of executives and have many volunteers working, donating, and trying to help all the cancer patients in need. There is no bias in this article. They keep it simple and statistical. This source doesn’t come in conflict with other sources. It’s one of the top sources for information and research on types of cancer.

Cayley's Annotation

The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine is an extremely reliable source that was used often throughout the findings on lung cancer throughout this flyer. The information was found through the 'Science in Context' database which was also used often in order to find credible sources. Jacqueline L. Longe is the editor of The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine and has a very credible writing background. Enjoying the knowledge, I noticed that there was little bias used-if any- in the information I found from this editor. However this isn't a very opinionated topic, I could not find any bias in The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. The information I found had all been created in mid-2014 to current time, I was pleased to hear this because I was able to tell that the information is relatively new and accurate to our time period. This was done very well throughout all of my findings using Science in Context, however, I also noticed that there was plenty of coverage on every topic involving lung cancer, and all the information tied in with other sources I had used. This is a very credible source and I look forward to using it once again in the future.

WORK CITED

Cayley: Cancer Facts : How Does Lung Cancer Develop? YouTube. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dd2jYSTi9NM>. SOURCE 9

Cayley and Sofie “How Many People Get Lung Cancer, Non-Small Cell? Topics.” Cancer. American Cancer Society, 4 Mar. 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer-non-smallcell/overviewguide/lung-cancer-non-small-cell-overview-key-statistics>. SOURCE 4

Cayley: Kehr, Webster. “What Causes Cancer?” Cancer Tutor. Independent Cancer Research Foundation, 31 Oct. 2015. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancertutor.com/what_causes_cancer/>. SOURCE 10

Cayley: Lovly, Christine M. “Molecular Profiling of Lung Cancer.” My Cancer Genome. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.mycancergenome.org/content/disease/lung-cancer>. SOURCE 11

Cayley: “Lung Cancer.” Beltina. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.beltina.org/health-dictionary/lung-cancer-stage-staging-signs-symptoms-causes-small-cell-surgery-treatment-cures-prognosis.html>. SOURCE 13

Cayley and Sofie: “Lung Cancer.” D X Line. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://dxline.info/diseases/lung-cancer>. SOURCE 16

Cayley and Sofie: “Lung Cancer.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Science in Context. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=SCIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&dviSelectedPage=&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=true&displayGroups=&sortBy=&zid=&search_within_results=&p=SCIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCV2643900081&source=Bookmark&u=amhe95753rpa&jsid=e0d6dee728d889bef1311d804522926c>. SOURCE 2

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Sofie: “Lung Cancer Cells.” Sick! N. pag. Science in Context. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ImagesDetailsPage/ImagesDetailsWindow?total=7&query=&prodId=SCIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&limiter=AC+y&displayGroupName=Images&u=amhe95753rpa&currPage=1&p=SCIC&action=e&catId=GALE%7C00000000MUOU&view=docDisplay&documentId=GALE%7CCV2210039681>. SOURCE 6

Cayley and Sofie: “Lung Cancer, Non-Small Cell.” The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. N.p.: n.p., n.d. N. pag. Science in Context. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/scic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=SCIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&display-query=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&dviSelectedPage=&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=&displayGroups=&sortBy=&zid=&search_within_results=&p=SCIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7COMFVWP340697800&source=Bookmark&u=amhe95753rpa&jsid=2aed9388c463a33e3d0370b7f316ee2a>. SOURCE 3

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Cayley and Sofie: “Major Cancer Groups Recommend CT Scans for Lung Cancer.” ABC News Radio. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://abcnewsradioonline.com/health-news/major-cancer-groups-recommend-ct-scans-for-lung-cancer.html>. Source 15

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“What Are the Key Statistics of Lung Cancer?” Cancer. American Cancer Society, 4 Mar. 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer-non-smallcell/detailedguide/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-key-statistics>. SOURCE 5

“What is non-small cell lung cancer?” Cancer.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Dec. 2015. <http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer-non-smallcell/detailedguide/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-what-is-non-small-cell-lung-cancer>. SOURCE 8