By: Sandra B. Riya C. Jill G.

Introduction about Syria

In 1936 a treaty was signed giving Syria independence from France. In 1946 Syria was declared a free country, and their Independence Day in Syria is April 17th.

In the 1967 in Arab-Israeli War, Syria lost the Golan Heights to Israel.

The official name of Syria is ‘Syrian Arab Republic’.

Flag of Syria

Syrian Flag History

The current Syria flag was adopted on March 30, 1980. The Syrian flag contains the colors red, white, black and green. The red symbolizes sacrifices made in the fight for freedom. The white symbolizes peace. The black symbolizes Syria's colonial history. The green stars represent when Syria and Egypt unified in the Arab republic which lasted from 1958- 1961.

Political Map of Syria

National Anthem

Homat el Diyar

Humath al diari aleikum salam
Abt aan tozala al nafusu al kiram
Aareiunu al urubthi beyton haram
Wa Aarshu al shumusu himan la yudam
Robughu al shami buruju al Aala
Tohaki al suma'a bia'ali alsana
Fa ardon za het bilshumus al widaa'a
Samaon lamroka ou ka sama
Rafifu alamani wakhafuq alfuad
Aala aalamen duma shamla al bilad
Ama fihi min kul ain suwad
Wamin dami kuli shahydin midad
Noufuson ubaton wa madin magid
Wa ruhu al adahi raqibon aatid
Fa minna al walidu wa minna al rashid
Fa lem la nasudu wa lem la nasheed

English Translation

Guardians of the Homeland

Defenders of the realm,
Peace on you;
Our proud spirits will
Not be subdued.
The adobe of Arabism,
A hallowed sanctuary;
The seat of the stars,
An inviolable preserve.

Capital of Syria (Damascus)

Damascus is the capital of Syria. Damascus is also known as “The City of Jasmin”. The city is only 50 miles from the Mediterranean Sea. The population in Syria is 1,569,394 million.

Ruins of Palmrya

The ancient ruins of Palmyra are in an oasis in the Syrian Desert. It was a necessary stop for caravans crossing the desert as well as an important cultural center and residence for many high-profile individuals. The ancient city fell into disuse after the 1500’s.

Saladin's Castle in Syria

Latakia is known to the locals as the main port city of Syria. It is where boats and cruises often stay from travelling the Mediterranean Sea. But apart from just being a regular port, this city also happens to be one of the most growing industrial and manufacturing places in Syria.

Other Famous Locations

Aside from Damascus, Syria has other cities that have great history value and cultural importance. They are Aleppo, which has amazing views; Dier-az-Zur, a desert town near the infamous Euphrates River where the ancient civilization began to grow and Latakia, a port city where Saladin’s Castle can be found.

Geography of Syria

Physical Map of Syria

Climate in Syria

Average temperature, rainfall and snowfall information is available for the following climate stations in Syria. Syria has mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast; cold weather with snow or sleet periodically in Damascus

Physical Feature: Syrian Desert

In the East of Syria there is a desert called the Syrian Desert. In the Syrian desert the ground is very rocky and flat. The Syrian desert is part of the Al-Hamad which covers portions of Turkey, Syria , Iraq, Jordan ,and Saudi Arabia. Its border on the west is the Orontes Valley, and its border on the east is the Euphrates. In the north, the desert gives way to the more fertile areas of grass.

Physical geography of Syria

Syria is a country in western Asia, and borders Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea. The country consists mostly of arid plateaus. Syria's most important river, the Euphrates, crosses the country in the east. The climate is hot and very dry with mild winters.

Culture of Syria

Pie Chart of ethnic groups in Syria

The MAIN ethnic groups in Syria include Sunni Muslim, Arabs, Levanites, Alawites, and other.

Samara The Syrian Dance

History of Syria

Top 10 Events-Timeline


1918-Troops led by Emir Feisal take Damascus.


1920-French forces occupy Damascus forcing Emir to go somewhere else. The french announces Damascus is now called Greater Lebanon.


1955-Baath party is founded--Syria seeks closer ties to Egypt.


1971-Rise of Asaad- Hafez al-Asaad is elected president for 7 year term. (But it turns out to be a lot longer than that). The end of Baath ruling.


1973-Asaad drops the constitutional requirement that the president must be Muslim. He is accused of being atheist. The riots are suppressed by the army.


1981-Israel claims the Golan Heights.


2002-Senior US official includes Syria in a list of countries that are part of an "axis of evil" first listed by President Bush in January. Damascus is acquiring weapons of mass destruction.


2007-Israeli strike--Israel carries out an aerial strike in northern Syria that it was claimed a nuclear facility.


March 2011-Nationwide Rising--Syria begins a civil war, following the shooting death of civilians in Deraa.


2013-Chemical weapons used in Syria by the Syrian government.

5 ABC'S Of Culture in Syria


Wheat is the main crop and one of the staple foods. Vegetables, fruits, and dairy products also are eaten. Lamb is popular, but most people cannot afford to eat meat on a regular basis. Islam proscribes the consumption of pork, and other meats must be specially prepared in a method called halal cooking. In middle-class and wealthier homes, meals are like those eaten in other Middle Eastern countries: roast or grilled chicken or lamb with side dishes of rice, chickpeas, yogurt, and vegetables. The common dishes in Syria are hummus, falafel, shish kebabs, and farooj


As in many Arabic countries, religion is an integral part of the culture and daily life. The foundation of Islamic belief is called the Five Pillars.It is speculated, although not certain, that Alawite Muslims do not observe the holy month of Ramadan or make a pilgrimage to Mecca as other Muslims do and celebrate some Christian holidays. The practices of the Druze are also somewhat mysterious. A smaller group known as the Ismailis recognizes a living person, the Aga Khan, as their sacred leader.


Syrians wear a mix of traditional Arab and Western-style clothing. However, casual Western clothes such as jeans, T-shirts, and running shoes are rarely worn. Both men and women cover their legs to at least below the knee. Their arms are covered to below the elbow. Neither men nor women wear shorts. Middle-and upper-class women, especially younger ones, are flashy dressers. They like bright colors, lots of jewelry and make-up, high-heeled shoes, and "big hair." Young men have very short, closely cropped hair and also dress stylishly.


Arabic is the official language of the Syrian Arab Republic and the language spoken by nearly all Syrians. French is the second-most-common language. However, it has started to be rivaled by English. Other languages spoken in Syria are Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian,and French.


The animal in Syria include camels, cheetahs, elephants, sheep, to exotic spiders, camels, antelope, gazelle, deer, rabbits and hare, falcons, eagles, and a variety of lizards, typically larger ones. The animals are treated poorly in Syria. They torture them day to day starving and making the animals live in cages, and they are abusing the animals.

Economy of Syria

Description of Syria's Economy

Syria's economy is command.The economy of Syria,even today, still remains to be in an ongoing conflict that began in 2011. The economy remains highly in control of the rate so that it operates properly by the government. For future economic constraints Syria has to be alert for foreign trade barriers, declining oil production, high unemployment, rising budget deficits, and increasing pressure on water supplies caused by heavy use in agriculture, rapid population growth, industrial expansion, and water pollution. Syria earns money by mostly importing and exporting goods from its countries surrounding itself. People as individuals, get money by working for a company

Agriculture in Syria

Water Pollution in Syria

Syria's Renewable and Non- Renewable Resources

Non- Renewable Resources

Crude Oil


Natural Gases


Renewable Resources



Bio- Mass

Geothermal energy

Hydro Power

Graph of

Government in Syria

The type government in Syria is currently, republic under an authoritarian regime. The branches of this type of government are the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial Branch. Some of the political parties that are in Syria are the National Progressive Front Party,Socialist Unionist Democratic Party, Syrian Arab Socialist Union or ASU, Syrian Communist Party,Syrian Social Nationalist Party, and the Unionist Socialist Party. These are the legal parties considered in Syria as political parties in Syria.

Syria's Capital(Damascus)

Syria's current leader(Bashar Hafez al-Assad)

Video on Government in Syria

Syria - President Assad FULL SPEECH (with ENGLISH Voice TRANSLATION)
You can watch all of it, but a summary of it is till 5:18 on the video.