Spanish society in the 19th century

By Markel Azkarate

The New Society

Throughout this century economic and social transformations were bringingto a modern society.

Economy and industrialistion

Industrial Revolution was late and slow and only in the Basque Country, Catalonia and the large cities.

Most of the population still worked in the fields, England or Germany used advanced machinery.

The railway, didn´t appear until the second half of the century.

The steam locomotive and steamship, main forms of transport. The first train line, Barcelona and Mataró, 1848.


The bourgeoisie became rich and dominant ssocial class.The bourgeoisie, were upper class lived in modern neighbourhoods called ensanches.

The Industrial Revolution brought serious social problems such as harsh working conditions and child explotation. In rural areas, the peasants lived in extreme poverty. The reason for the political demands.

The cities had poor neighbourhoods with bad living conditions. The poorest lower class, like factory workers, live here.

Art and culture

Artists portrayed the changes of the times and many artistic styles emerged. The majority of the population was illiterate.


At the beginning of the century, revolutionary atmosphere and faraway places.


In the middle of the century, disadvantaged aspects of the industrial society.


At the end of the century, technological advances on their work

Generation of `98

A group of writers and intelectuals who criticised Spanish society.

Scientific advances

Several researchers archived scientific advances, for example, Ramón y Cajal recived the first Nobel Prize for Science.