# Matter:States, Properties + Changes

## Matter: How can we explain it? What to do with it?

Matter is,in general, everything around us. Matter takes up space and all matter has mass.

There are 3 basic states of matter: solids, liquids and solids. You can weigh matter by weight, capacity or volume. Matter has many different properties, which we shall talk about later. Matter can be any shape, size or colour matter is anything 3-D you can think of. Airplanes, paper, air. Even the smallest of bugs are matter. You can measure matter in density and mass.

## The 3(or 4) states of matter

So, as we know, there are 3 states of matter: liquids, solids and gases. But is there another state of matter? Plasma, Greek for 'anything formed',is made by putting gases under heat or close to an electromagnetic field.Plasma is full of electrons and nitrogen.Plasma is the most abundant state of matter. An example of plasma is lightning or a neon sign. However, there is 6 (and more) states of matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases, Plasma, Bose-Einstein and Filament.

## The changes in matter

Solids don't change shape unless force is applied to them. For example, a piece of paper is a solid. If I twist that piece of paper, it will change shape. Liquids take the space of their container. If I pour water into a wide container, it would have the same volume if I put that same amount of water in a thin container. Gases expand to fill the container's size. If a jar had steam inside it, it would cover the whole jar. To change a solid in a liquid, you need to heat it(unless it is metal; then it would expand). For example, if you heat a ice cube, then it would melt and turn into water(melting). To turn a liquid into to a gas, you need to heat it. If you heat water,then it will turn into steam(condensation). To turn a gas into a solid, you need to cool it. Water vapor on windows turns to frost/ice in winter(deposition). Heat changes the state because heat causes molecules to bounce, which make them weaker.

## How do the particles move in matter?

In solids, the particles stay close together, not moving but vibrating a little.Solids need force to change shape. Liquid particles kind of cling onto each other so liquids can change their shape without force. Liquids take on the width or length of their container. Particles of gases move freely. Gases always fill the container. Even if you took an amount of gas smaller than the container, the gas would stretch to fill it.

## Physical and chemical changes in matter

A physical change is a change in dimensions or how it looks. A physical change change is made with physical force. Like if you would crush paper in to a paper ball, you would change it's dimensions and how it looks. A chemical change is a change in the state and shape. A chemical change is made with chemical forces such as heat. Like a snowflake that melts in your hand. It went from solid to liquid and from 'snowflakey' to watery.

## Properties Of Matter

Solids have a fixed volume and shape because the particles in a solid are not really moving.

A solid cannot 'flow' because its particles cannot move/slide against each other. Liquids take the space of the container it occupies. Liquids can flow easily since the particles move against each other. Gases takes up the shape and size of the container it is in. Gases can flow because the particles have so much space between each other.