Cloning in Science
We are researching it class. Here is my project.
The Background Info:
The history of cloning: The term cloning was not use until by British-born Indian geneticist J. B. S. Haldane in a speech. Even so, it started way back in the 1880s by August Weismann. He made a theory that said cell differentiation would reduce the genetic information contained within a cell. This theory was not prove until 1902. A German embryologist Hans Spelmann showed that a split salamander embryos could still grow into adulthood. In 1938, Spelmann stated that the way forward for this area of research should be by inserting the nucleus of a differentiated cell into an enucleated egg. In 1953, a tadpole was the first animal to be cloned from embryonic cells. Those were some example for first experiments. There were more experiments though out the 1900s to 2000s. The key people was J. B. S. Haldane, August Weismann, and more.
What is the technology?
The technology of cloning is recombinant DNA technology or molecular cloning. Both of them help us
What is the benefits?
The benefits are: helping the endangered species, cure diseases, making better materials on animal, replacing organs and other tissues, and more. Helping the endangered can keep them from extinction. The gene therapy can help to cure diseases. Also, by breeding the traits you want you can get you the traits you want. Cloning can also replace died organs or tissues.
What are the risks?
Even when cloning are helpful, there are many risks. Dolly the sheep is an example. There are high failure rates. Dolly was not created until after 276 failed attempts. Also , there are many problems as Dolly grows. Diseases and problem are common in Dolly the sheep. She has many of them. There is also the premature ageing. Although Dolly was born in 1996, she originates from the udder of a six year old ewe. Because of that, her total genetic age is 13. There are a lot more risks than this for cloning.
Regulation of animal cloning in the United States is under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration. The International Embryo Transfer Society has issued a position statement in favor of animal cloning research. (Most scientific organizations have focused their position statements regarding human cloning, presuming already their support for animal cloning) The Humane Society of the United States has issued a press release condemning the cloning of cats or other pets. Possibility of human cloning has been the source of debates by the governments of many countries and international organizations. Policies and laws are currently being formulated in different countries and even in different states of the United States. Statements of the U.S., U.K. and Canadian governments and many other publications that explain the moral, ethical and legal issues of human cloning that are pertinent. Many of the rules are made by the government or some other organization. They are making these laws and rules because there are many problems with cloning. Sometimes they banned cloning from a country because of the danger, problems, and more.