Robert Anderson and his force of 85 soldier were positioned at Fort Moultrie near the mouth of Charleston Harbor. On Thursday, April 11, 1861, Confederate Brig. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard dispatched aides to Maj. Anderson to demand the fort’s surrender. The firing continued all day, although much less rapidly since the Union fired aimed to conserve ammunition. On Saturday, April 13, Anderson surrendered the fort. Incredibly, no soldiers were killed in battle. The salute began at 2:00 P.M. on April 14, but was cut short to 50 guns after an accidental explosion killed one of the gunners and mortally wounded another. Carrying their tattered banner, the men marched out of the fort and boarded a boat that ferried them to the Union ships outside the harbor.
He wanted to threaten Northern cities weaken the North's appetite for war and especially win a major battle on Northern soil and strengthen the peace movement in the North. Prodded by President Abraham Lincoln Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker moved his Union Army of the Potomac in pursuit but was relieved of command just three days before the battle. Hooker's successor Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade moved northward keeping his army between Lee and Washington D.C. When Lee learned that Meade was in Pennsylvania Lee concentrated his army around Gettysburg.
In late April 1863, Grant undertook a new and bold campaign against Vicksburg and the Confederate defenders under John Pemberton. After conducting a surprise landing below Vicksburg at Bruinsburg, Mississippi, Grant’s forces moved rapidly inland, pushing back the threat posed by Joseph E. Johnston’s forces near Jackson. Once his rear was clear, Grant again turned his sights on Vicksburg. Casualty figures include the 29,491 officers and men and surrendered by Pemberton.
Late in the day the third and final major assault by the Union army pushed over a bullet-strewn stone bridge at Antietam Creek. Just as the Federal forces began to collapse the Confederate right the timely arrival of A.P. Hill’s division from Harpers Ferry helped to drive the Army of the Potomac back once more. The bloodiest single day in American military history ended in a draw but the Confederate retreat gave Abraham Lincoln the victory he desired before issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.
Sherman's March To Sea
Approx Court House
Bowing to the inevitable Lee ordered his troops to retreat through the village and back across the Appomattox River. Through the lenient terms Confederate troops were paroled and allowed to return to their homes while Union soldiers were ordered to refrain from overt celebration or taunting. These measures served as a blueprint for the surrender of the remaining Confederate forces throughout the South. Although a formal peace treaty was never signed by the combatants the submission of the Confederate armies ended the war and began the long and difficult road toward reunification.
David D. Porter on January 13 Union forces landed and prepared an attack on Maj. Gen. Robert Hoke's infantry line. On the 15th, a select force moved on the fort from the rear. A valiant attack late in the afternoon following the bloody repulse of a naval landing party carried the parapet. The Confederate garrison surrendered opening the way for a Federal thrust against Wilmington the South's last open seaport on the Atlantic coast.